ࡱ> oqn7 CbjbjUU &p7|7|?l4l.4H| | | | | >  -------$. 0v- | | -'| | -''' Z| | -' -'z'D-D-| ( #⏊`4"D-D-T-0.D-e12%e1D-'CETIS EC SIG Terms and Definitions Last update: 29/10/01 Contributors: Lorna M. Campbell, University of Strathclyde,  HYPERLINK "mailto:lmc@strath.ac.uk" lmc@strath.ac.uk John Casey, University of Stirling,  HYPERLINK "mailto:john.casey@stir.ac.uk" john.casey@stir.ac.uk Gerry Graham, Learning and Teaching Scotland,  HYPERLINK "mailto:g.graham@ltscotland.com" g.graham@ltscotland.com Bill Olivier, CETIS,  HYPERLINK "mailto:b.olivier@bangor.ac.uk" b.olivier@bangor.ac.uk adaptive content ADL Advanced Distributed Learning aggregation AICC Aviation Industry CBT (Computer-Based Training) Committee artefact / artifact asset BSI British Standards Institute CEN/ISSS European Committee for Standardization / Information Society Standardization System CETIS Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards chunk Learning experiences are offered mostly in chunks, such as courses. These chunks (in the next paragraph we abstract them to the concept of unit of study) are the major delivery units for e-learning From Koper, R. Modeling units of study from a pedagogical perspective: the pedagogical meta-model behind EML. First Draft, version 2, June 2001,  HYPERLINK "ftp://ds_pub_011019:guest@ftp.din.de/pedagogical_metamodels.pdf" ftp://ds_pub_011019:guest@ftp.din.de/pedagogical_metamodels.pdf (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) CLEO Customized Learning Experience Online Usage: Research project funded by ADL compliance conformance controlled vocabulary Collection of terms compiled with control over form, format, inclusion and exclusion of terms. From Currier, S and Wake, S Negotiating Subject Access: Resources Discovery on the Web in Library and Information Briefings, Issue 97, May 2001. (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) digital repository educational content educational modelling language Equivalences: EML Usage: OUNL, IMS An EML is a semantically rich information model and binding describing the content and process within units of learning from a pedagogical perspective. Working definition from CEN/ISSS Survey of Educational Modelling Languages  HYPERLINK "http://www.ni.din.de/sixcms/list.php3?page=test&rubrik_id=422" http://www.ni.din.de/sixcms/list.php3?page=test&rubrik_id=422 (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) e-learning EML Educational Modeling Language Usage: OUNL Educational modelling languages in general should be distinguished from EML in particular which is being developed by the Open University of the Netherlands. (29/10/01, L.M.Campbell) granule / granularity Equivalences: learning object, unit of study The level of detail to which a resource is treated as a discrete entity. For example: A catalogue record for a periodical, for an individual issue of a periodical, or for an article in the individual issue. From Currier, S and Wake, S Negotiating Subject Access: Resources Discovery on the Web in Library and Information Briefings, Issue 97, May 2001. (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) harmonisation IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE 1483 LTSC Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Learning Technology Standards Committee Equivalences: LTSC implementation IMS IMS Global Learning Consortium interoperability ISO International Standards Organisation learning Learning can be considered to be a change in the cognitive or metacognitive state From Koper, R. Modeling units of study from a pedagogical perspective: the pedagogical meta-model behind EML. First Draft, version 2, June 2001,  HYPERLINK "ftp://ds_pub_011019:guest@ftp.din.de/pedagogical_metamodels.pdf" ftp://ds_pub_011019:guest@ftp.din.de/pedagogical_metamodels.pdf (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) learning content management system learning design learning episode learning object Equivalences: unit of study, granular / granularity Usage: OUNL, IEEE. A learning object is an entity, digital or non-digital, that can be used, re-used, or referenced during technology supported learning. From Koper, R. Modeling units of study from a pedagogical perspective: the pedagogical meta-model behind EML. First Draft, version 2, June 2001,  HYPERLINK "ftp://ds_pub_011019:guest@ftp.din.de/pedagogical_metamodels.pdf" ftp://ds_pub_011019:guest@ftp.din.de/pedagogical_metamodels.pdf (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) .any digital resource that can be reused to support learning. From Wiley, D. A. (2000). Connecting learning objects to instructional design theory: A definition, a metaphor, and a taxonomy. In D. A. Wiley (Ed.), The Instructional Use of Learning Objects: Online Version.  HYPERLINK "http://reusability.org/read/chapters/wiley.doc" http://reusability.org/read/chapters/wiley.doc (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) For this standard, a learning object is defined as any entity, digital or non-digital, that may be used for learning, education or training. From Draft Standard for Learning Object Metadata, WD 6-1.1, Sponsored by the Learning Technology Standardization Committee of the IEEE  HYPERLINK "http://ltsc.ieee.org/doc/wg12/LOM_WD6-1_without_tracking.htm" http://ltsc.ieee.org/doc/wg12/LOM_WD6-1_without_tracking.htm (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) A learning object is any resource or content object that is supplied to a learner by a provider with the intent of meeting the learner's learning objective, and is used by the learner to meet that learning objective. Bill Olivier, CETIS, University of Wales , Bangor, pers. comm. (26/10/01, B. Olivier) LIP Learner Information Package LMS learner management system Equivalences: VLE Usage: learning technology standards bodies localisation LOM Learning Object Metadata Usage: IEEE LT Learning Technology manifest A manifest is a description in XML of the resources comprising meaningful instruction. A manifest may also contain zero or more static ways of organizing the instructional resources for presentation. The scope of manifest is elastic. A manifest can describe part of a course that can stand by itself outside of the context of a course (an instructional object), an entire course, or a collection of courses. The decision is given to content developers to describe their content in the way they want it to be considered for aggregation or disaggregation. The general rule is that a Package always contains a single top-level manifest that may contain one or more (sub)Manifests. The top-level manifest always describes the Package. Any nested (sub)Manifests describe the content at the level to which the (sub)Manifest is scoped, such as a course, instructional object, or other. From IMS Content Packaging Information Model, Final Specification, Version 1.1.2,  HYPERLINK "http://www.imsproject.org/content/packaging/index.html" http://www.imsproject.org/content/packaging/index.html. (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) metadata Descriptive labels can be used to index learning resources to make them easier to find and use. Such labels are "data about data" and are referred to as "meta-data". An example of meta-data is the label on a can of soup, which describes the can's ingredients, weight, cost, and so forth. Another example is a card in a library's card catalog, which describes a book, its author, subject, location within the library, and so forth. A meta-data specification makes the process of finding and using a resource more efficient by providing a structure of defined elements that describe, or catalog the learning resource, along with requirements about how the elements are to be used and represented. From IMS Learning Resource Meta-data Information Model, Final Specification, Version 1.2.1, http://www.imsproject.org/metadata/index.html. (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) Metadata is information about an object, be it physical or digital. From Draft Standard for Learning Object Metadata, WD 6-1.1, Sponsored by the Learning Technology Standardization Committee of the IEEE  HYPERLINK "http://ltsc.ieee.org/doc/wg12/LOM_WD6-1_without_tracking.htm" http://ltsc.ieee.org/doc/wg12/LOM_WD6-1_without_tracking.htm (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) MIS management information system MLE managed learning environment Equivalences: Usage: JISC FE programmes ontology This term originated in philosophy (the study of what exists and what we must assume exists in order to form a description of reality). It was adopted by the field of knowledge engineering, and is now being used widely (and sometimes vaguely) in information science. An ontology may be thought of as a set of concepts making up a known universe (e.g. entities, attributes, processes), their definitions and their inter-relationships. (Vickery, 1997; Soergel, 1999; Welty, 1999). From Currier, S and Wake, S Negotiating Subject Access: Resources Discovery on the Web in Library and Information Briefings, Issue 97, May 2001. (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) An ontology, in computer science, ahs come to denote an explicitly specified conceptualisation of part of the world. In software, and ontology is implemented as a data structure. What distinguishes the ontology from the data structure is semantics: that it talks about something in the world. An ontology provides users with a representation which is essential to effective communication and coordination. From Lee, M, Baillie, S and DellOro, J TML: Thesaurus Markup Language in Proceedings of the 4th Australasian Document Computing Symposium, Coffs Harbour, Australia, December 3, 1999. (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) In the context of knowledge sharing, I use the term ontology to mean a specification of a conceptualization. That is, an ontology is a description (like a formal specification of a program) of the concepts and relationships that can exist for an agent or a community of agents. This definition is consistent with the usage of ontology as set-of-concept-definitions, but more general. And it is certainly a different sense of the word than its use in philosophy. From Gruber, T. What is an Ontology?  HYPERLINK "http://www-ksl.stanford.edu/kst/what-is-an-ontology.html" http://www-ksl.stanford.edu/kst/what-is-an-ontology.html. (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) OUNL Open University of the Netherlands package Usage: IMS The object which IMS defines as a package is a self contained unit which contains not only the subject-specific content but also information about the package and it can be installed and launched. It also contains a structure. In fact it can include several possible structures using the same content. From Duncan, C, Bennett, S, Bond, S, Douglas, P, Black, R, Berrera, C, Deruy, C and Gondouin, D Modularity and granularity: Essential steps towards re-usable educational objects, forthcoming. (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) A Package represents a unit of usable (and reusable) content. This may be part of a course that has instructional relevance outside of a course organization and can be delivered independently, as an entire course or as a collection of courses. Once a Package arrives at its destination to a run time service, such as an LMS vendor, the Package must allow itself to be aggregated or disaggregated into other Packages. A Package must be able to stand-alone; that is, it must contain all the information needed to use the contents for learning when it has been unpacked. From IMS Content Packaging Information Model, Final Specification, Version 1.1.2,  HYPERLINK "http://www.imsproject.org/content/packaging/index.html" http://www.imsproject.org/content/packaging/index.html. (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) Package Interchange File Usage: IMS Once a Package has been incorporated into a single file for transportation, it is called a Package Interchange File. The relationship of these parts to the content container is described below: Package Interchange File - a single file, (e.g., .zip, .jar, .cab) which includes a top-level manifest file named "imsmanifest.xml" and all other physical files as identified by the Manifest. A Package Interchange File is a concise Web delivery format, a means of transporting related, structured information. PKZip v2.04g (.zip) is recommended as the default Package Interchange File format. From IMS Content Packaging Information Model, Final Specification, Version 1.1.2,  HYPERLINK "http://www.imsproject.org/content/packaging/index.html" http://www.imsproject.org/content/packaging/index.html. (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) pedagogy QTI Question and Test Interoperability Usage: IMS resource The resources described in the manifest are physical assets such as web pages, media files, text files, assessment objects or other pieces of data in file form. Resources may also include assets that are outside the Package but available through a URL, or collections of resources described by (sub)Manifests. The combination of resources is generally categorized as content. Each resource may be described in a element within a manifest's XML. This element includes a list of all the assets required to use the resource. The files included in the Package are listed as elements within such elements. From IMS Content Packaging Information Model, Final Specification, Version 1.1.2,  HYPERLINK "http://www.imsproject.org/content/packaging/index.html" http://www.imsproject.org/content/packaging/index.html. (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) reusable information object reusable learning object resource object SCORM Shareable Content Object Reference Model Usage: Defined by ADL sequencing SIG Special Interest Group Usage: CETIS specification standard taxonomy A subject scheme which organises knowledge into a hierarchy. Term used mainly in computer science and software development, but now increasingly in information science, where a taxonomy looks much like a classification scheme for the web, usually without the notation. From Currier, S and Wake, S Negotiating Subject Access: Resources Discovery on the Web in Library and Information Briefings, Issue 97, May 2001. (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) thesaurus A controlled vocabulary, structured into a hierarchy and presenting semantic relationships using Broader Term, Narrower Term, Related Term, and usually enriched with Use and Use For references and Scope Notes. Consists of semantically independent units, usually individual terms, or phrases in which the terms cannot be separated. From Currier, S and Wake, S Negotiating Subject Access: Resources Discovery on the Web in Library and Information Briefings, Issue 97, May 2001. (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) The vocabulary of a controlled indexing language, formally organized so that the a priori relationships between concepts (for example as "broader" and "narrower") are made explicit. From ISO 5964 Documentation Guidelines for the establishment and development of multilingual thesauri. (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) TOC table of contents Usage: IMS unit of study Equivalences: learning object, granular / granularity Usage: OUNL The concept of unit of study is central to this case. It is the smallest unit providing learning events for learners, satisfying one or more interrelated learning objectives. This means that a unit of study can not be broken down to its component parts without loosing its semantic and pragmatic meaning and its effectiveness towards the attainment of learning objectives. The unit of study could be considered as a gestalt. From Koper, R. Modeling units of study from a pedagogical perspective: the pedagogical meta-model behind EML. First Draft, version 2, June 2001,  HYPERLINK "ftp://ds_pub_011019:guest@ftp.din.de/pedagogical_metamodels.pdf" ftp://ds_pub_011019:guest@ftp.din.de/pedagogical_metamodels.pdf (19/10/01, L. M. Campbell) VLE virtual learning environment Equivalences: LMS Usage: JISC FE programmes vocabulary A vocabulary is a recommended list of appropriate values. From Draft Standard for Learning Object Metadata, WD 6-1.1, Sponsored by the Learning Technology Standardization Committee of the IEEE  HYPERLINK "http://ltsc.ieee.org/doc/wg12/LOM_WD6-1_without_tracking.htm" http://ltsc.ieee.org/doc/wg12/LOM_WD6-1_without_tracking.htm (19/10/01, L. M. 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