ࡱ> ;=89:q =mbjbjt+t+ %AA=i] h j j j j j j $Y M J   h h BV @h < L\ CETIS EC-SIG Content Exchange Evaluation Report Author: Eddie Boyle Date: Jan 2002 Introduction This evaluation report has been prepared by the CETIS EC-SIG to inform those in the teaching community who have an interest in e-learning tools and applications of the current status of some of these applications and their adherence or otherwise to the IMS specifications in Metadata and Content Packaging. Six applications have been examined, from both academic and commercial sources. The report focuses on the practical exchange of learning materials (in the form of IMS packages) from one application to another. The report takes the form of a comparison of the applications with respect to their capability to import and export learning resources and to maintain the information contained in these resources after transfer from the environment of one application to another. Emphasis is placed on the successful transference of metadata and the organisation of the resources. The details of the success or otherwise of these experiments in transferring material will be noted. This will hopefully give a clear view of the current practical status of the claims made for interoperability. The report has been written by someone knowledgeable and experienced with IMS specifications but an attempt has been made to view the procedure from the perspective of an academic or teacher who has an interest in using or authoring material for learning online, but has no knowledge of IMS, XML, manifests or content packaging. 1. Scope of Evaluation This report has limited scope, in that it concentrates entirely on the exchange of learning materials between applications, and not on the internal functions of those applications. The details of importing and exporting to and from the applications are compared, but not their actual primary functionality e.g. their usage to create online courses or edit teaching resources (although of course importing material would contribute to a facility such as this). Some background technical detail is given in a summary of each application so that comparisons can be made between applications. The applications examined in the evaluation are: Microsoft LRN toolkit Macromedia Dreamweaver (with Manifest Maker Extension) Blackboard Learning System SeSDL PackageIt! EC-Pac JISC IMS Package Editor Unfortunately it was not possible in the limited time available for this evaluation exercise to obtain a copy of WebCT with the necessary IMS functionality installed (the IMS Content Migration Utility). A short summary of some of these tools and other applications that claim to support the IMS specifications can be found at: http://www.met.ed.ac.uk/pac-man/cp-overview.html A suite of customised packages was also created as part of this evaluation. This served the purpose of allowing simple packages with dummy content to be defined in such a way as to test certain technical components of the import procedure of an application. 2. Criteria used to compare applications Several criteria were uses to compare the applications. It must be stressed that these criteria were focused towards the package import and export functionality of each application. The criteria fall into 7 distinct categories: Cost: shareware/freeware etc.; licences; geographical limits; institutional restrictions; open source code. Source and market: developed by business or academia?; partners/backers/stakeholders; intended user base. Developmental stage: finished product?; Alpha/Beta etc.?; Version no. System requirements and technical specs: browser, OS, client applet, server application etc. Ease of use: Help facilities; task simplicity/transparency; intuitive/user friendly interface; level of prior technical knowledge assumed, technical support. Interoperability and IMS implementation: types of content handled & displayed (browser format, mime types etc.); IMS spec versions catered for; dealing with aggregated packages and submanifests, namespaces, DTDs, schemas etc.; support for ADL SCORM, other specs. Error handling: coping with problems, unusual situations; diagnostic/validation messages; displaying non-standard elements of learning packages or ignoring them. Of these criteria, this report will emphasise 6 & 7. The others will provide useful background information for potential users. 3. Application summaries 3.1 Microsoft LRN toolkit LRN is a set of tools (in the form of a 'toolpad') allowing IMS package manifests to be created, imported, validated and edited. It is free and can be downloaded from the Microsoft website. It runs as a standalone application on Windows platforms, but requires Internet Explorer 6 to be installed as well. LRN is quite well developed and version 3.0 was used in this evaluation. The development of LRN by Microsoft is backed by a wide range of commercial partners including Blackboard and Click2Learn. LRN was initially found to be a bit difficult to install in this evaluation, with various obscure error messages appearing when the application was run. However eventually it worked well and the interface was found to be well-designed and intuitive to use (see fig.1). The resources themselves can be viewed in a special window within the interface. There is a lot of supporting documentation that can be downloaded from the website, but there is no help facility within the software itself. LRN obviously makes an effort to hide from the user the unpleasant intricacies of an IMS package manifest, but in common with the other 2 package editors in this evaluation, some knowledge of what is contained in a manifest and how is structured is necessary to use the application effectively. LRN claims to support the specifications IMS Content Packaging version 1.1, IMS Metadata version 1.2 and ADL SCORM version 1.2. LRN has very helpful error-checking mechanisms including a specific validator tool to check manifest files and report errors. The package editor component allows very sophisticated manifests to be created with the full set of metadata elements, multiple organisations and resources, and also sub-manifests to be incorporated.  Fig. 1 LRN Editor 3.2 Macromedia Dreamweaver (with Manifest Maker Extension) Dreamweaver is a commercial web authoring tool developed by Macromedia which requires the purchase of a licence for use, although a free 30 day evaluation trial can be downloaded from the Macromedia website. Dreamweaver is a standalone application that runs on Windows and Mac systems. To use the IMS functionality requires the add-on utility 'Manifest Maker Extension' to be installed also. Dreamweaver is a highly developed and supported application, with extensive help facilities and supporting documentation. Dreamweaver version 4 was used in this evaluation. Dreamweaver is perhaps more likely to be used by academics to create online teaching resources than any other application in this evaluation due to its popularity. It is a large and complex application however which may not be entirely appropriate for this purpose, and the need to define resources as 'websites' before being able to package them is slightly confusing. The Manifest Maker functionality allows resources created within Dreamweaver to be packaged according to the ADL SCORM version 1.2 specification, which is convergent on the IMS content packaging and metadata specifications. The closeness of this convergence is tested in this evaluation. The interface used to create the package manifest is fairly easy to use (see fig. 2) although only three metadata fields are used; Title, Description and Keywords. There is also little control over the structure of the table of contents as the resources are listed automatically by Manifest Maker in alphanumeric order by filename as it finds them. There is no facility to create a user-defined hierarchical structure for the content for instance. There is an option to supply schemas with the package. Dreamweaver offers no obvious manifest error-checking mechanisms. The Manifest Maker facility only creates very simple packages for exporting with basic metadata and does not allow for example, packages to be aggregated or packages to be imported.  Fig. 2 Dreamweaver Manifest Maker extension 3.3 Blackboard Learning System Blackboard is a commercial learning environment application that is server-based and accessed through a web browser. Blackboard requires the purchase of a licence for use, although a free account can be used to evaluate the system online from Blackboard's website. Blackboard is a highly developed and supported application, with extensive help facilities and supporting documentation. Blackboard version 5.0 was used in this evaluation. Blackboard claims to support the IMS content packaging specification version 1.1 although this is not very obvious from using the system or reading the supporting documentation. Blackboard uses a facility to 'archive' a resource and offers a choice to do this in IMS compatible format (or 'Blackboard 5.5' format). The support for IMS is actually quite limited. Import of IMS packages is not supported and the export of a resource as an IMS package does not allow the metadata created for that resource to be included, although the metadata appears to be stored in IMS format whilst in the Blackboard system. 3.4 SeSDL SeSDL (Scottish electronic Staff Development Library) is an online digital repository of learning resources in 'granular' format. It is a website accessed through a web browser. It was developed for academic use as part of a SHEFC-funded project and is free to use although some material is restricted to certain academic institutions. SeSDL is a completed facility although still fairly underdeveloped compared to commercial applications. SeSDL has an intuitive and clear interface, with online help facilities and documentation. The resources in it can be downloaded as IMS packages. It claims to support the specifications IMS Content Packaging version 1.1 and IMS Metadata version 1.1. SeSDL does not allow the packages to be edited in any way and does not offer any manifest checking mechanisms, although it does allow resources to be uploaded in a 'bare' format and then creates a package manifest with a helpful metadata entry interface (see fig. 3).  Fig. 3 SeSDL upload tool 3.5 PackageIt! PackageIt! was created by Phillip Beauvoir of CeLT (Centre for Learning Technology) and is available to download from the CeLT website. PackageIt! was developed by academia and is free for personal use, although it is envisaged that a licence will be required to be purchased for use by institutions. PackageIt! is still under development and so cannot be considered as a mature product. In particular it has no supporting documentation or help facilities as of the date of writing this report, although this is expected to change soon. PackageIt! version 1.1 was used in this evaluation. PackageIt! is a Java application, and so should run in any Java-enabled system. It claims to support the specifications IMS Content Packaging version 1.1 and IMS Metadata version 1.2. Using PackageIt! is slightly confusing and the interface is not very easy to use, although when guides are available the situation will obviously improve (see fig. 4). It appears that using PackageIt! requires extensive knowledge of the details of the IMS specifications and jargon to fully utilise its capabilities. The only error handling it offers is Java debugging messages that are not helpful to non-programmers - when packages or manifest elements fail to be parsed correctly there are no indications that this has happened. PackageIt! appears to be primarily a tool for creating packages from scratch around existing resources, rather than importing packages from another application, although imported packages can be viewed with the Package Viewer tool (see fig. 5). This Package Viewer tool also includes a window within the interface for viewing the resources although some formatting is lost in HTML files and files such as Shockwave files do not display at all.  Fig. 4 PackageIt!  Fig. 5 PackageIt! 3.6 EC-Pac JISC IMS Package Editor EC-Pac was created by Boon Low as part of a JISC-funded project. It is the product of an academic research project, but is intended for anyone to use and is available to download and use for free. It is a completed application but as with PackageIt! cannot be considered as polished and developed as a well-resourced commercial application. EC-Pac is an IMS package editor and has an interface similar to the LRN editor and is reasonably easy to use (see fig. 6). Metadata is viewed in a pop-up editable tabbed interface and resources are viewed with a pop-up web browser. The organisation of the resources is viewed in a dedicated window on the left hand side of the interface. There is no help facility within the program although the project website has a detailed tutorial. EC-Pac imports zipped packages, not single manifest files which can be an annoying feature. EC-Pac is a Java application, and so should run in any Java-enabled system. Downloading and installing is a fairly complicated process but once installed works fine. EC-Pac claims to support the specifications IMS Content Packaging versions 1.0 and 1.1 and IMS Metadata versions 1.1 and 1.2, plus subsets of the IMS metadata elements mapped to Dublin Core, Canadian Core, and UK National Learning Network schemas. This makes it the most widely compatible application in this evaluation. There is very little error handling or validating of packages beyond unfriendly Java debugging messages.  Fig. 6 EC-Pac 4. Interoperability experiments For the purposes of this evaluation, the six applications under examination were split into two groups, one containing applications which were primarily MLEs, digital repositories or authoring tools, and one containing tools whose primary function was the creation and editing of IMS packages. The first group contained Dreamweaver, Blackboard and SeSDL and these could be considered as package deliverers as they all exported (or claimed to) educational resources contained within them as IMS packages. None of them allow the import of IMS packages (or at least this facility was not available for the evaluation). The second group contained LRN, PackageIt! and EC-Pac and these are all primarily package editors (although LRN has other functionality). These editors both import and export IMS content packages and also allow the editing and manipulation of these packages (although this latter function will not be covered in this report). The applications in the second group are not e-learning applications as such and could be considered as 'utilities' in the process of developing and distributing educational material online. Group 1: MLEs, repositories, authoring tools Dreamweaver Blackboard SeSDL Group 2: package editors LRN PackageIt! EC-Pac This division of applications by functionality led to interoperability experiments being carried out in 3 stages: 1. Export of packages from Dreamweaver, Blackboard and SeSDL to the 3 package editing tools. 2. Export and import of packages between the 3 package editing tools. 3. Import of customised test suite of 8 packages into the 3 package editing tools. Emphasis was placed on the visible transfer (or otherwise) of metadata and organisation information and whether the contents of the package resource files themselves were visible. Details of the results of these three experiments follow. 4.1 Export of packages from Dreamweaver, Blackboard and SeSDL to the 3 package editing tools. In the cases of Dreamweaver, Blackboard and SeSDL, a sample learning resource was created which consisted of one page of HTML with five links to image files contained in the same directory. It was noted that when creating packages from resources in Dreamweaver and Blackboard, the packages had several files added to them for the purposes of formatted display within the parent applications. This is undesirable in the context of transferring the packages to another application and increases the amount of files needlessly. LRN and EC-Pac also do this when packages are opened in them. 4.1.1 Importing Dreamweaver packages to LRN Editor LRN did not display the metadata from the package as the metadata in the Dreamweaver package was in something similar to IMS metadata specification version 1.1 format whereas LRN only supports version 1.2. In practice what this amounts to is no use of the 'imsmd' namespace prefix in the metadata xml elements section of the manifest, and using the tag instead of the tag. The package organisation was imported without problems and the resource files were displayed correctly. 4.1.2 Importing Dreamweaver packages to PackageIt! PackageIt! did not display the metadata from the package. This may be for similar reasons as noted in 4.1.1 or due to some inability to import metadata from packages. The Package Viewer tool displayed the resources and their organisations, but it was noted that when viewing the test HTML file the display formatting was not might have been expected and that the links to the image files were broken. 4.1.3 Importing Dreamweaver packages to EC-Pac EC-Pac displayed the metadata from the package as it supports IMS version 1.1. The package organisation was imported without problems and the resource files were displayed correctly. 4.1.4 Importing SeSDL packages to LRN Editor LRN did not display the metadata from the package as the metadata in the SeSDL package was in IMS version 1.1 format whereas LRN only supports version 1.2 (see 4.1.1). The package organisation was imported without problems and the resource files were displayed correctly. 4.1.5 Importing SeSDL packages to PackageIt! PackageIt! did not display the metadata from the package, for similar reasons as noted in 4.1.2. The Package Viewer tool displayed the resources and their organisations, but suffered the same problems as noted in 4.1.2. 4.1.6 Importing SeSDL packages to EC-Pac EC-Pac displayed the metadata from the package as it supports IMS version 1.1. The package organisation was imported without problems and the resource files were displayed correctly. 4.1.7 Importing Blackboard packages to LRN Editor LRN did not display the metadata as it appears that Blackboard creates manifests with no metadata elements. The package organisation was not displayed either due to the manifest containing a tag instead of a tag. This tag was changed in the IMS Content Packaging specification version 1.1. The resource files were not displayed due to the unrecognised 'baseurl' attribute of the tag, and also there being no 'href' attribute. This is caused again by an older version of the specification than LRN supports. 4.1.8 Importing Blackboard packages to PackageIt! PackageIt! did not display the metadata from the package. This may be for similar reasons as noted in 4.1.7 or due to some inability to import metadata from packages. The Package Viewer tool displayed the resources and their organisations, but suffered the same problems as noted in 4.1.2. 4.1.9 Importing Blackboard packages to EC-Pac EC-Pac did not display the metadata or organisation information at all from the package, and did not display the resource files correctly. This is almost certainly due to problems with the structure of the Blackboard manifest, although EC-Pac claims to support the IMS Content Packaging specification version 1.0. Lack of error checking mechanisms in EC-Pac made further scrutiny difficult. These results are summarised at Appendix 1. 4.2 Export and import of packages between the 3 package editing tools. As in 4.1 a simple test package was created in all three cases consisting of one page of HTML with five links to image files in the same directory. The package created in EC-Pac was created with IMS specifications Content Packaging version 1.1 and metadata version 1.2. 4.2.1 Export of LRN packages EC-Pac displayed the package metadata and organisation correctly but did not display the resource files at all. It was not clear why this was so. PackageIt! did not display the package metadata but displayed the organisation and resource files correctly in the Package Viewer tool. This was due to incompatible metadata specification version support. 4.2.2 Export of PackageIt! packages LRN displayed the metadata, organisation and resource files correctly. EC-Pac did not display the metadata, organisation or the resource files correctly. An EC-Pac error message indicated the problem was with 'identifier' attributes in the manifest. 4.2.3 Export of EC-Pac packages LRN displayed the metadata, organisation and resource files correctly. PackageIt! did not display the package metadata but displayed the organisation and resource files correctly in the Package Viewer tool. This was due to incompatible metadata specification version support. These results are summarised at Appendix 2. 4.3 Import of customised test suite of packages into the 3 package editing tools. See Appendix 4. 4.3.1 Import to LRN Test package 1: Displays package correctly Test package 2: Displays package correctly Test package 3: A few metadata fields are not displayed; otherwise displays package correctly Test package 4: Does not display any metadata due to no support for metadata spec. V1.1 Test package 5: Displays package correctly Test package 6: Displays package correctly Test package 7: Does not display package at all due to DTD declaration Test package 8: Displays package correctly 4.3.2 Import to PackageIt! Test package 1: Does not display metadata but displays rest of package correctly Test package 2: Does not display metadata but displays rest of package correctly Test package 3: Does not display metadata but displays rest of package correctly Test package 4: Does not display metadata but displays rest of package correctly Test package 5: Does not display metadata but displays rest of package correctly Test package 6: Does not display metadata but displays rest of package correctly Test package 7: Does not display package at all due to DTD declaration Test package 8: Does not display metadata, resources or sub-manifest information 4.3.3 Import to EC-Pac Test package 1: Displays package correctly Test package 2: Displays package correctly Test package 3: Does not display metadata but displays rest of package correctly Test package 4: Displays package correctly Test package 5: Displays package correctly Test package 6: Displays package correctly Test package 7: Does not display package at all due to DTD declaration Test package 8: Does not display package correctly due to sub-manifests These results are summarised at Appendix 3. 5. Conclusions Main issues: Specification version incompatibility, especially metadata. Manifests not correctly constructed according to claimed support. Lack of validating programs and helpful error checking. Interfaces need to be more user-friendly; people unfamiliar with IMS will find it difficult to use some of these applications. Lack of e-learning tools that import IMS packages. LRN most useful and easiest to use of the package editors. Support for IMS in commercial products still quite poor. Inline DTD declarations in manifest files are undesirable even though allowed by XML spec. Little support for sub-manifests in packages PackageIt! does not import metadata Other applications that could have been evaluated given more time: CO3 WebCT HLSI Teknical Pioneer Guinti Labs eXact Packager SABA Content XOR Xtensis Appendix 1 Summary of results of exchanging packages from Dreamweaver, SeSDL & Blackboard to LRN, PackageIt! and EC-Pac. N = unsuccessful exchange; Y = successful exchange. See 4.1 for details. ExportImportDreamweaverSeSDLBlackboardLRNNNNPackageIt!NNNEC-PacYYN Appendix 2 Summary of results of exchanging packages between LRN, PackageIt! and EC-Pac. N = unsuccessful exchange; Y = successful exchange. See 4.2 for details. ExportImportLRNPackageIt!EC-PacLRNYYPackageIt!NNEC-PacNN Appendix 3 Summary of results of exchanging packages from the test suite to LRN, PackageIt! and EC-Pac. N = unsuccessful exchange; Y = successful exchange. See 4.3 for details. ExportImport12345678LRNYYYYYYNYPackageIt!NNNNNNNNEC-PacYYNYYYNN Appendix 4: Test suite of Sample IMS packages This suite of sample packages has been developed by the CETIS EC-SIG to enable users or administrators to test whether a particular learning application or tool has the capability to exchange learning content according to the IMS specifications in Content Packaging and Metadata. These packages are available to download at: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/educational_content/pkg/suite.zip The packages are broadly similar to the sample packages provided by IMS along with their specifications but are simpler and cover more specific areas of the details of exchanging content where problems have been noted to occur with applications which claim IMS 'compliance'. All the packages contain dummy resources in the form of HTML pages with a small amount of explanatory text. All the packages use the IMS specifications Content Packaging version 1.1 and Metadata version 1.2 (except where noted). There are 8 packages, each one focusing on a particular detail of how a learning resource may possibly be packaged up according to the specs. The packages can be used to import into an application to see how well it caters for a particular detail. The packages are: TEST_PKG1: Contains manifest with very basic metadata (title & description fields) and 1 resource file TEST_PKG2: Contains several resource files and a manifest with a simple table of contents organisation arranged in a hierarchical manner TEST_PKG3: Contains manifest with a large amount of metadata (43 fields), some empty, some filled with dummy content (taken from a SeSDL package) TEST_PKG4: Contains manifest with basic metadata (title & description fields) that uses IMS metadata version 1.1. This replaces the tag in version 1.2 with the tag. TEST_PKG5: Contains several resources and a manifest with two different organisations of the same set of resources TEST_PKG6: Contains a manifest which references a resource held externally with a fully-qualified URL TEST_PKG7: Contains a manifest which contains a DTD declaration to a copy of the IMS Content Packaging DTD contained in the package TEST_PKG8: Contains 2 resources which have been aggregated together and referenced by sub-manifests in the main manifest 01Wd  . 0 .?>I $@+g"$#$R$s$((S*T*[,\,w,,j3k33333333y9z9998;B;>jGOJQJUjOJQJUjOJQJUjaMOJQJUj&OJQJUjOJQJU 5OJQJ 6OJQJ5CJOJQJOJQJ5B*CJOJQJ5>*CJ OJQJ;012FUVWde   ^ _   0 2 $012FUVWde   ^ _   0 2 {|-.=>  #$?@67JK)*+fg  (#)#                   U2 {|-.=>$ & F$$  #$?@67JK)*+fg  (#)#!$$$)#!$"$$$%$Q$R$S$r$s$)&*&e'f'(((((((S*T*Z,[,],^,w,x,y,z,{,|,},~,,,..//11h3i3j3l3m333333333355e6f6%7&777x9y9{9|999999>>H>I>V>b>h>i>>>>>>> ??k??@@@@@@SATABBe!$"$$$%$Q$R$S$r$s$)&*&e'f'(((((((S*T*Z,[,],^,w,x,y,z,$$z,{,|,},~,,,..//11h3i3j3l3m333333333355e6$$e6f6%7&777x9y9{9|999999>>H>I>V>b>h>i>>>>>>>$$$>H>h>>@TAYEZE4Q}QRRVVVVz]]``aaab&bbc!c-ccSdZdd;m*OJQJ#> ??k??@@@@@@SATABBCCCCZE[EEEEEGGGGqH$BCCCCZE[EEEEEGGGGqHrHHHIIIIJJJJKKKKMM,N-NOOPO~OOQQ3Q4Q5Q|Q}QRRRR=S>S T T0T1TxTyT-U.UNUOUUUdVeVVVVVVVV W W7WbWWXCXnXXXXXXOYYYBZZZ+[|[}[[[[[=\h\\eqHrHHHIIIIJJJJKKKKMM,N-NOOPO~OOQQ3Q4Q5Q|Q$|Q}QRRRR=S>S T T0T1TxTyT-U.UNUOUUUdVeVVVVVVVV W$ W W7WbWWXCXnXXXXXXOYYYBZZZ+[|[}[[[[[=\h\\\$\\]M]N]z]{]|]}]~]]]]]]]]]]]]]]%^]^^_J___ `/`0`1`t`u`y```````````````````````````¼                                              >\]M]N]z]{]|]}]~]]]]]]]]]]]]]]%^]^^_J___$ & F$_ `/`0`1`t`u`y`````````````````````$ & F$$ & F``````````````````````aaaa$$$$````````````````aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaabbbbbb bbbbbbbbb%b&bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb c c c ccccccccc baaaaaaaaaaaaΜg]$$4    ֈ $$$$1$$4    0 aaaaaaaaaaaaabbbbb4P$$$]$$4    ֈ  $$bb bbbbbbbbb%b&bbbbb@$$$$$$]$$4    ֈ  bbbbbbbbbbbb΀lg$$]$$4    ֈS J  $$1$$4    0S  bbbbbbbbbbbbb c c c cc0L$]$$4    ֈS J   $$ccccccccc c!c,c-ccccc<$$$$$$]$$4    ֈS J   cc c!c,c-cccccccccccccccccccccccccdddddd d d dddddddddd'd(d*d,d.d0d2d4d6d8d9d:dAdBdDdFdHdJdLdNdPdRdSdTdUdVdWdXdYdZddddeeeeff'g(ghhii%iiii j j bccccccccccccch$$1$$4    02 cccccccccdddk0faaaaaaaaa$$$$$$4     2  2 ^ dddd d d ddddddf\c$$$4     2  2 ^ $$ ddddd'd(d*d,d.d0d2dfxc$$$4     2  2 ^ $$ 2d4d6d8d9d:dAdBdDdFdHdJdfhc$$$\4     2  2 ^ $$ JdLdNdPdRdSdTdUdVdWdXdYdfcccccc$$$j4     2  2 ^ $$ YdZddddeeeeff'g(ghhii%iiii j jjjjj_k`k$$ jjjjj_k`kkkkkk:l;lFllll:m;m3;VYiN4M揄uȁd5ezLb0 iؠ 0vwiZt ^ݖ#iQ؆qEg(wq_;xUu50MS:DGBcb&ou&I0\^];GsKc:Ox}Ԑ,L*gyWkhh5aH?WlUJaP}n$mź * !~$mWJ6elPj0.N@(Mw"%NG -\)!@8sn_iL@6nSN EvB)"ԟ4_^Bi+Me#[K,}p6Iٛ Gwss^ߜW,WJnL4JMd'gD;x7Y !&HXuQfJ8k{Q{0 L|Ci"Xڱ!3NCb{\,Z5y)}+$vWc=ֱcY:JoHYw+~,TWG2#6 kJ{ozkuGϕ $k\[5s[ oէ}*!(S,rGs揪<% +Z4S߃?&X̩u ˊ8_|뿾 =|N\F83s4,$]!cu1gCH1颲}جiV:ϳ:T!~N(Z}p &QE{ú -a;suu>{ﵦooguuo?ӷ+ -,M/~2.^4ՅT|m'@3Sx m߃ۋso;)/pb}9 ~8;3,&}A]骶ݻaQ_*T7$.^A+쨮4*RG4-kRJ?gMǮ'MJXdۅ:mͯG~*w&|:&]~͚C`M49!:v˖>XB@Mu$nh'6/DMeqe~BۇRӼX|KY7+\y'VQe̛0s}}]¥;U<%nYdTunB } b_%LN_ Kp.I_T0g~c`~\ldƴHiC,ޗAU]sG,ڛ%;+pc^˙*T\^]g xxo޿v&J߫YiץŜ`8%tL 4k 䠋?j9|uj[)懱"Q??.A霦vZ{kk[vUSvVj/W|d`vVf~M+E0;tTG}[`{n3椧^GKVJ u84M S>}ؐ}:^xܱ(Q+F k-}va4y e5 fNTȌ}y_:/̽?9m6{D9ꦒQL<[YJqT΄('.+KgvoN+_iXJv_~!ZKZ5E.qTn8KՕdȉSE[HM{bPxїu_UojɩU䭩 ekߴ˫] ,jX0~0MyMg_k pp]~QUV0.ARS+Y.qޛ z̥}*+u*|P,pHLC4vꢗE-Y! c⨶Yg%j͖W{L\t+*J[}a%N)\(JC4V k\J;$+6tmtsQfؼz4an1]͚I9a&?6Ϙ"כ~JP{vVS[gJ WÇv*\m$*}C8~%kU߫q<K=k/p>v}C) hYp^GT4+5/ǹz q^/75w5RP*W J! 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