ࡱ> Z\Y7 WGbjbjUU h7|7|$C2l***8bvd!^($$$  G!I!I!I!I!I!I!$V# v%m!"m!$$!:$$G!G!lK- +!$ ٪V * +!!<!!p&Fp&+!Distributed Learning Project Guide: Creating Reusable Materials Author: Gayle Calverley, University of Manchester, gayle.j.calverley@man.ac.uk Introduction It is becoming more and more important to develop materials for online delivery in such a way as to make them easily transferable and reusable. For most materials it is easiest to do this at the point of creation. There are many advantages to this approach, which include your ability to transfer materials between different parts of a course, between different courses that you run, and to allow the content of your materials to be convertible should the delivery technologies for your course change (for whatever reason). For certain types of materials, such as those developed for wider national use, like the National Learning Network, reuse practices are also important for ensuring that materials are sharable across different learning and storage environments and institutions. There are many sources of information produced within the UK that introduce users to the field of developing reusable materials. This document outlines several important sources of information to get you started in some of the key areas. Although the areas can be highly technical, this information is designed to demystify the processes and technologies. It offers pointers to some of the tools that you can use with your materials, to make approaching development for reuse easier. While you will probably not want to go into these issues in depth for each project, developing your materials with an appreciation of reuse will assist you greatly in obtaining the support you require at a later time, should the material you have produced require adaptation of any kind. Ideally, projects should be able to structure their material so that the raw content is package-ready, and associated with a minimum of appropriate records describing each piece of content from which the course is built. However, not all projects will wish or need to create the actual content packages. Similarly, an appreciation of the type of metadata (information about the content) associated with learning material will help projects to maintain at least the minimum of appropriate records regarding the material used within a course. This will assist with labeling and storing content according to technical specifications, should this be required at a later date. Metadata is important because it allows easier indexing of and searching across stored content. It also assists with assembly and revision of existing content. In order to increase learning materials reusability and potential to interoperate with other systems and resources, developers who are responsible for creating content packages and metadata records should, where possible, use content management and metadata editing tools that conform to learning technology standards and specifications. Developers who choose to create metadata records and content packages from scratch should follow the implementation guides provided by most specifications bodies. Most IMS specifications are accompanied by a Best Practice and Implementation Guidelines document and Dublin Core provides a Usage Guide along with its metadata element set. The reference materials are presented in sequential order of difficulty. Topics may assume knowledge from the previously listed material. Further literature readings and references are listed at the end. Writing and Using Reusable Educational Materials: A Beginners Guide Authors: John Casey and Mhairi McAlpine This guide, commissioned by the CETIS Educational Content Special Interest Group (EC SIG), is aimed at those who want to create teaching and learning materials that are going to be easily reusable in the future by themselves or others. Although the guide assumes the materials are going to be stored digitally, the techniques and methods described apply equally to non-digital storage and retrieval techniques. Reuse in this context spans a whole range of activities from taking and editing pieces of material at the sub-lesson level to utilising complete courses. Available from: http://www.gla.ac.uk/rcc/staff/mhairi/index.html http://www.cetis.ac.uk/educational-content/ Content Management Tutorial Author: Boon Low The IMS Content Packaging and Management Project looked at the specifications and tools available to allow people to create reusable educational materials. The project Resources area offers several features useful for getting started with reusable educational materials. The first is an online tutorial (sign in to use) on the area. There are several routes through the tutorial depending on your focus. The full tutorial covers: the courseware development lifecycle, moving on to discuss courseware design, developing reusable content, guidelines, and evaluation. A resources list is provided and the tutorial is supported by a discussion area. This is available at: http://www.met.ed.ac.uk/pac-man/tutorial-access.shtml Content Management Tool Guide The Resources area described also offers a guide to some of the tools and other applications that claim to support the IMS Global Learning Consortiums specifications, which were developed to support reuse of educational content and sharing of educational and student information across applications. These tools and applications can be used for creating content packages of your own educational material, often with facilities to incorporate its associated metadata: http://www.met.ed.ac.uk/pac-man/cp-overview.html In addition to listing existing tools, the project also developed the Pac-Man content package editor, available from: http://www.met.ed.ac.uk/pac-man/editor/ The Pac-Man editor has its own tutorial, which contains sections on: creating a lesson, aggregating lessons, packaging/previewing, reconstructing lessons, editing meta-data, meta-data tools, specification versions and evaluation. A further list of products/tools with functionality in terms of creating, editing and delivering content packages is listed in the minutes of the 2nd meeting of the CETIS EC-SIG available from the Files section of the EC-SIG area on the CETIS website at: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/educational-content/ Compatibility of the Tools Author: Edward Boyle While specifications are designed to allow content packaging tools to work together, obviously there are still some problems. This CETIS EC-SIG report assists with highlighting situations where relatively simple manual adjustments to the tool output may be required to enable import export interoperability between systems. The report is available at: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/educational_content/pkg/ec-sig3html.htm The sample packages used to compile the report are available from: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/educational_content/pkg/suite.zip You may wish to use these for testing the tools you elect to use and compare the results to those obtained in the report. The CETIS website also contains a standards-compliant product directory indicating which products claim to comply with various specifications. This is available at: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/directory Draft Guide to Metadata Author: Jenny Slater The Draft Guide to Metadata describes what metadata can and cannot do and introduces the key concepts of metadata for the new user. This includes how metadata links in with other learning content specifications. The guide discusses what metadata is used for, how it is created, and how it is stored. The concept of interoperability is introduced, along with a discussion on the benefits of making your metadata records interoperable. The guide is produced by the CETIS Metadata Special Interest Group. The guide itself is available from the CETIS Metadata SIG area of the CETIS website, under the Files section for the group at: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/metadata/ Further references on all aspects of metadata are available from the References section of the SIGs home site at: http://cetis-metadata.lboro.ac.uk/index.htm Example Metadata Schema FERL (FE Resources for Learning) has made their metadata schema available as a reference source. See: http://ferl.ngfl.gov.uk/display.cfm?page=65&catID=220&resID=3204 FERL is managed using an online Content Management System for page management linked to a repository of materials created by FE practitioners using a range of authoring tools. The FERL Metadata structure is based on existing Metadata standards such as Dublin Core, IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM), IMS Learning Resource Meta-data and uses established controlled vocabularies wherever appropriate. It was developed as part of the Becta FE Metadata scheme, the details of which are also available in this workbook. Terminology In familiarising themselves with the area of creating reusable educational material, projects may find a number of apparently similar terms being used in different ways. This is a difficult issue to address as there are no hard and past definitions to these terms. As this is a rapidly developing field the terminology is also developing rapidly. A good example of overlapping meaning according to context is to compare the use of common terms such as: learning object, instructional object, knowledge object, and information object. While this might be confusing at first, remember that it is more important you are able to grasp the concept of how these objects can be use to support teaching and learning, rather than to understand precise distinctions between the terms themselves. However, in doing this, keep in mind that one important characteristic separating the way groups of terms are used is between those definitions such as information object which have no educational objectives, and those terms such as learning object or instructional object which must have an educational objective. Examples highlighting this distinction are usually along the lines of: An illustration of Picassos Guernica is an information object, which could be used in many contexts. An illustration of Guernica accompanied by text discussing art and the Spanish Civil War is a learning object. However, the material contained in a single information object can usually be incorporated into many different educational scenarios and learning objects. In this example the illustration of Guernica could be used in learning objects covering: history of art, Spanish history, painting, biography, history of the Reina Sophia, and so on. A learning object defines the way the information is used within a particular context to present a specific learning task associated with particular learning outcomes. Two useful sources to assist with this are: The CETIS Reference Tool: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/encyclopedia/ The aim of this tool is to gather common usages of terms and not to establish standard definitions. Instructional Use of Learning Objects Author: David Willeys http://reusability.org/read/ The first chapter in particular Connecting learning objects to instructional design theory: A definition, a metaphor, and a taxonomy references most of the terms currently in use. Further Reading & Information Experiences with reusable e-learning objects: from theory to practice Jeanette A Muzio, Tanya Heins, Roger Mundell The Internet and Higher Education 5(2002) p21-34 This paper discusses various definitions of electronic learning objects and issues around the size such objects should be to maximise reusability capacity. The second part discusses the practical application of creating and reusing electronic learning objects and how these have been defined, stored, and tagged in an online learner and content management tool at CEDAR. Educational Metadata and brokerage for learning resources Luis E Anido, Manuel J Fernandez, Manuel ~Caeiro, Juan M Santos, Judith S Rodriguez, Martin Llamas Computers and Education 38 (2002) p 351-374 The first part of this paper offers a survey of one of the most prolific fields of learning technology standardisation: educational metadata. The second part shows how these data models are applied by actual software systems to facilitate the location of learning resources. Educational brokerage is a promising field that lets learners find those computer-based training resources that best fit their needs,. This paper identifies the main actors, their roles, and open issues and trends. Making Sense of Learning Specifications and Standards: A decision Makers Guide to Their Adoption This report aims to lower industry confusion about learning standards and to accelerate their adoption. It considers how standards contribute to portability and reuse, and the way adherence allows easier storing, searching, indexing, deployment, assembly and content revision. Individual chapters introduce metadata, learning objects, standards and specifications groups, and learning standards definitions. It is a useful introductory overview, although limited in that only the ADL SCORM (Sharable content object resource model) specification is described in any detail. The Centre For Educational Technology Interoperability Standards http://www.cetis.ac.uk The CETIS site contains information on standards in general, and also on those relating to its special interest groups in UK HE. The Special Interest Group (SIG) areas contain links to specific information of interest in these areas, as well as providing documentary evidence of the groups activities. The Educational Content (EC) SIG tracks, evaluate and support the UK FE/HE sectors uptake and implementation of educational content interoperability standards. The group focuses primarily on the IMS Content Packaging, Content Management and Learning Design specifications and developments in the OUNL Educational Modelling Language (EML). In addition the group monitors related specifications produced by the following agencies: ADL (particularly the SCORM), IEEE, CEN/ISSS, BSI, ISO, AICC, ARIADNE and Prometeus. There are also groups for Metadata, Assessment, Learner Information and Enterprise, Accessibility and FE. You are free to approach any of the relevant SIGs if you have comments or queries relating to metadata, content packaging and the development of reusable educational resources. The Metadata and EC SIGs are supported by electronic mailing lists. You need to join the lists before you post to them, but they are open to everyone. EC-SIG http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/cetis-ecsig.html Metadata SIG http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/cetis-metadata.html IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. http://www.imsproject.org/ The IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. (IMS) is developing and promoting open specifications for facilitating online distributed learning activities such as locating and using educational content, tracking learner progress, reporting learner performance, and exchanging student records between administrative systems. IMS has two key goals: Defining the technical specifications for interoperability of applications and services in distributed learning, and Supporting the incorporation of the IMS specifications into products and services worldwide. IMS endeavors to promote the widespread adoption of specifications that will allow distributed learning environments and content from multiple authors to work together (in technical parlance, "interoperate"). IMS is a global consortium with members from educational, commercial, and government organizations. Funding comes from membership fees, with organizations choosing to join as either Contributing Members or Developers Network Subscribers. The IMS website includes FAQs, news, further information on the specifications, training information, discussion groups and forums, and examples of how IMS members are using the specifications. ADL http://www.adlnet.org/ The Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) initiative is a collaborative effort between government, industry and academia to establish a new distributed learning environment that permits the interoperability of learning tools and course content on a global scale. ADL's vision is to provide access to the highest quality education and training, tailored to individual needs, delivered cost-effectively anywhere, anytime. PRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="INCLUDEPICTURE \d "images/spacer.gif"The ADL website includes an overview of SCORM (Shared Content Object Reference Model) with a comprehensive resource and support area. Note that SCORM is a reference model rather than a specification. It implements and builds on existing specifications, including IMS Content Packaging and IEEE/IMS metadata, within a particular set of parameters. This is elaborated in the ADL Knowledgebase article ADL - IMS - IEEE AICC which states that The SCORM applies current technology developments from groups such as the IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc., the Aviation Industry CBT (Computer-Based Training) Committee (AICC) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC) to a specific content model to produce recommendations for consistent implementations. 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Campbelld2rnMicrosoft Word 9.0@F#@TZ1@\@\ \7 ՜.+,0 hp  The University of ManchesterinnvC Beginners Guide Title  !"#$%&'()*+,-./012346789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHJKLMNOPRSTUVWX[Root Entry F٪]1Table5p&WordDocumenthSummaryInformation(IDocumentSummaryInformation8QCompObjjObjectPool٪٪  FMicrosoft Word Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q