ࡱ> 7 qdbjbjUU .7|7|W`lHHH8LT?Yj,v"',SXXXXXXX$Z \XkkkXXkvXkX&^TX  @R~H:U,XY0?Y VS]S]XICCE & ASCILITE 2002: Two New Zealand eLearning Conferences Learning Objects, Learning Design & Interoperability Issues Report to CETIS EC SIG by Sarah Currier, April 2003. Two international peer-reviewed learning technology conferences were held in Auckland, New Zealand in December 2003, which I attended. ICCE (International Conference on Computers in Education, an IEEE conference) covered the full range of education, where ASCILITE (Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, the Southern Hemisphere version of ALT) was focused on post-secondary education. ICCE was huge, with around 600 delegates and many, many papers; a majority of participants were from Southeast Asia. ASCILITE was more cozy and the majority of participants were Australian, with a reasonable British contingent too. As will be seen from this report, in spite of ASCILITEs smaller size, it had an encouraging proportion of workshops and papers looking at issues around learning objects, learning design, reusability and interoperability. Such papers at ICCE were not only sparse, they were difficult to find in the programme and I stumbled on a few of them by sheer accident! This report will summarise and link to relevant workshops and papers under what I hope are useful headings to enable readers to look at the bits they are interested in. I attended most, but not all of the sessions refered to. ASCILITE ASCILITE Keynotes Setting the tone at ASCILITE were three timely, relevant and interesting keynote speeches: Diana Laurillard: Design Tools for eLearning 2 page summary at:  HYPERLINK "http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-217/key_laurillard.pdf" http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-217/key_laurillard.pdf Peter Olaf Looms (DR Interactive, Danish Broadcasting Corporation): Sailing into Uncharted Waters: The Impact of New Media Use in Education:  HYPERLINK "http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-218/key_looms.pdf" http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-218/key_looms.pdf Thomas C. Reeves (University of Georgia, USA): Storm Clouds on the Digital Education Horizon:  HYPERLINK "http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-219/key_reeves.pdf" http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-219/key_reeves.pdf Diana Laurillards keynote opened the conference, and was the same presentation that she gave in Sheffield in 2002 at the IMS Open Technical Forum (my notes from this are available at:  HYPERLINK "http://www.cetis.ac.uk/groups/20010809144711/FR20021016190914" http://www.cetis.ac.uk/groups/20010809144711/FR20021016190914 and Dianas slides from this are available at:  HYPERLINK "http://www.imsglobal.org/otf/dl02SeptSheffield.pdf" http://www.imsglobal.org/otf/dl02SeptSheffield.pdf). Essentially she presented the case for reusable learning designs (specifically citing IMS Learning Design and her JIME case study) to support research and the preservation of knowledge on the theory and practice of teaching and learning online. It was interesting to see this presentation again in a setting where it was not being preached to the converted (or at least to those who in general support reusability). There were a few resistant grumbles from the floor but overall the reception seemed interested and positive. Dianas case for more authoritative research in the learning technology field was supported by Thomas Reeves amusing and erudite keynote, in which he identified the lack of such research as one of 5 key areas where trouble is looming, these being: Increasing faculty workload (the 24-hour professor); The dominance still in online teaching & learning (and elsewhere) of traditional pedagogy; Weak assessment of learning outcomes in LT; Questionable standards of accreditation of online education, and; The continuing lack of substantive research in the field. On this last point he stated that it was clear from looking at the papers in this and previous ASCILITEs (and similar conferences) that the quality of current research is in doubt! On a slight tangent, but no less valuable, was Peter Looms keynote. This was a riveting look at the next generation of students, and how they are currently using a variety of media, including computer games and mobile technology. He cites all kinds of interesting research in the area, and, although it is not directly relevant to LT standards, I think everyone working in LT needs to make themselves aware of the issues which he presented. Interoperability Issues in General Sarah Porter of the JISC covered familiar (to us) territory in her paper on MLEs, including a summary of the role of interoperability standards, IMS, and CETIS in her full paper: How to Manage the Widespread Use of Learning Technology: Managed Learning Environments Sarah Porter, University of Bristol. Paper:  HYPERLINK "http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-141/077.pdf" http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-141/077.pdf Check this one out for wider context and management issues. Not so relevant to the EC SIG, but TOIA (which is implementing IMS QTI) was cited as a case study in: Rethinking Assessment Through Learning Technologies Joanna Bull, Grainne Conole, Hugh Davis, Su White, Myles Danson, Niall Sclater. Paper:  HYPERLINK "http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-127/056.pdf" http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-127/056.pdf James Dalziels half-day workshop was excellent: Current Strengths And Weaknesses In E-Learning Standards For The Education Sector James Dalziel (WebMCQ Pty Ltd, IMS Australia)  HYPERLINK "mailto:james@webmcq.com" james@webmcq.com There are no slides or paper available from this workshop, but I took some notes: Half-day workshop, attended by approx. 10 people. General background & overview of LT standards/specs. Australasian scene: EdNA (Australian education body); has developed their own application profile including IMS, DC and other elements. Has not had wide uptake though. IMS Australia, funded by federal government, based at MacQuarie University, involves a core of 4 or 5 people with 20 or so more involved. Is likely to change name in near future, and follow the CETIS model somewhat. Standards Australia IT-019-01 Committee (feeds into international standards bodies). Digital Rights Management (DRM); developing one of 2 emerging standards in this area: ODRL (open source). Other is XRML and is owned by Microsoft. New Zealand: There is partnership between Australian and New Zealand standards bodies. Few LT standards specialists there, maybe only one or two. AUTC (Australian Universities Teaching Committee) Reusable Learning Designs project:  HYPERLINK "http://www.learningdesigns.uow.edu.au/Publications/AUTCICTProject.ppt" http://www.learningdesigns.uow.edu.au/Publications/AUTCICTProject.ppt Reviewed over 60 AUTC projects 15 projects were selected to develop generic learning design Reported outcomes at conference 4-6th Dec. 2003: Reusable Learning Designs- Opportunities and Challenges  HYPERLINK "http://www.iml.uts.edu.au/autc/index.html" http://www.iml.uts.edu.au/autc/index.html Does not relate to, reference or mention IMS LD in any way (not clear why not). Has no people component Potential for reconsideration of AUTC project in light of IMS LD Potential implementation of AUTC designs in WebMCQ learning design system For full paper on this project, see below: A Tool to Evaluate the Potential for an ICT-Based Learning Design to Foster 'High Quality Learning' Shirley Agostinho, Ron Oliver, Barry Harper, John Hedberg, Sandra Wills.  HYPERLINK "http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-192/164.pdf" http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-192/164.pdf Discussion: Question: What about standards for students logging in cross-institutionally? Answer: See COLIS paper: there are no standards for this yet. At present it is done in a proprietary way. Question: Are standards developers looking outside of education for solutions? E.g. EFTPOS? Answer: To some extent, but developments like EFTPOS are not always relevant. Some work on digital identities- emerging standards from companies like Microsoft and Sun, are being looked at by elearning standards developers. Learning Objects There were a number of presentations of relevance to those interested in reusable learning objects. These included: Tom Boyles half-day workshop: Developing Cohesive Reusable Learning Objects Tom Boyle (Director of the Learning Technology Research Institute, London Metropolitan University)  HYPERLINK "mailto:t.boyle@unl.ac.uk" t.boyle@unl.ac.uk (Co-presenter Sarah Currier  HYPERLINK "mailto:sarah.currier@strath.ac.uk" sarah.currier@strath.ac.uk; Terri Kinnison of FERL was also intended to co-present but was unable to attend due to travel diffculties). Tom was also absent for the second half due to walking into a glass wall at morning tea and needing stitches! I facilitated the second half for him. Half-day workshop, approx. 10 people attended. Sarah Curriers section consisted of an overview of LT standards and specs. The workshop was lively and people engaged well with Toms ideas about embedding pedagogy in learning objects, as well as taking the opportunity to ask lots of questions about the standards and specs in the second half. Tom Boyle also presented a full paper on this topic: Design Principles for Authoring Dynamic, Reusable Learning Objects Tom Boyle Paper:  HYPERLINK "http://www.unitec.ac.nz/ascilite/proceedings/papers/028.pdf" http://www.unitec.ac.nz/ascilite/proceedings/papers/028.pdf See also Toms half-day workshop, listed above. This full paper won a Best Paper award at the conference. Presents ideas about what a learning object is, and how pedagogoically sound learning objects can be created. Presents a case study where learning objects in computer science were created and used to improve student retention and marks, in an area where there is considerable difficulty in both of these. Reflections On the COLIS Demonstrator Project and the 'Learning Object Lifecycle' James Dalziel Paper:  HYPERLINK "http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-207/207.pdf" http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-207/207.pdf This paper covered the same ground as James presentation and demo at the 6th EC SIG Meeting in Feb. 2003. For more details see the minutes of this meeting at:  HYPERLINK "http://www.cetis.ac.uk/groups/20010809144711/FR20030331190714" http://www.cetis.ac.uk/groups/20010809144711/FR20030331190714 Evaluating Learning Resources For Reusability: The 'DNER & Learning Objects' Study Sarah Currier and Lorna M. Campbell Paper:  HYPERLINK "http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-129/059.pdf" http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-129/059.pdf Slides:  HYPERLINK "http://www.cetis.ac.uk/groups/20010809144711/FR20030213135030" http://www.cetis.ac.uk/groups/20010809144711/FR20030213135030 Session was well attended with about 20-25 people. Unfortunately I have managed to block any memory of questions or discussion afterwards, although I was approached later by a learning technologist from Wellington, New Zealand, who said that the paper was very useful for her work! For the project this paper is based on see:  HYPERLINK "http://www.strath.ac.uk/Departments/CAP/dnerlo/index.html" http://www.strath.ac.uk/Departments/CAP/dnerlo/index.html. For full reporting documents e-mail me at  HYPERLINK "mailto:sarah.currier@strath.ac.uk" sarah.currier@strath.ac.uk. Another half-day workshop, which would have been very interesting indeed, but unfortunately was cancelled: Scholarship and Quality: Evaluating Learning Objects Through External Peer Review Craig Zimitat (Lecturer in Flexible Learning, Griffith Institute for Higher Education, Griffith University)  HYPERLINK "mailto:c.zimitat@mailbox.gu.edu.au" c.zimitat@mailbox.gu.edu.au The website of the project which it was to be based on may be found here:  HYPERLINK "http://www.peerreview.com.au" http://www.peerreview.com.au. Learning Design As mentioned above, Diana Laurillards keynote speech and James Dalziels workshop both included material of relevance to those interested in reusable learning design. Other papers of interest were: It Takes More Than Metadata and Stories Of Success: Understanding Barriers to Reuse of Computer-Facilitated Learning Resources Carmel McNaught, Andrew Bird, Kevin Whithear, John Prescott. Paper:  HYPERLINK "http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-112/021.pdf" http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-112/021.pdf This paper explores two case studies, examining experiences of Australian academics in sharing and reusing educational resources. It attempts to throw light on the complex issues and barriers to reuse. In the first case study 150 students evaluated 169 websites on plastic surgery and this evaluation is compared with a readability evaluation done on the same websites. The two evaluation results do not correlate, and although no details were given, the students apparently showed a variety of preferences themselves. The authors then say We are left with a wealth of material but no clarity at this point about how to organize and frame this material so as to support individual student learning styles. How do we order and group these sites? The second case study concludes that there were three barriers to success in a collaborative project for sharing veterinary science resources: funding; technical platform; and insufficient production of the modules. Paper highlights the need for policies and processes that support a culture of collaborative work environments, and for effective generic educational design templates. A Tool to Evaluate the Potential for an ICT-Based Learning Design to Foster 'High Quality Learning' Shirley Agostinho, Ron Oliver, Barry Harper, John Hedberg, Sandra Wills. Paper:  HYPERLINK "http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-192/164.pdf" http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-192/164.pdf Following on neatly from the previous paper, this paper reports on Australian project Information and Communication Technologies and Their Role in Flexible Learning, which aimed to produce generic and reusable learning design resources. This is the same project that James Dalziel reported on in his workshop, mentioned above. Does not reference IMS LD or EML (does mention a paper by Rob Koper relating to EML but doesnt appear to look into it any further than to state there has been little research). Gives three key elements of a learning design: tasks; resources and supports. Does not mention roles/people. Makes an interesting read, to see the similarities and differences to the approach that OUNL took in developing EML, and to see specific issues brought out. Designing Learning Activities from Learning Objects Igor Hawryszkiewycz  HYPERLINK "mailto:igorh@it.uts.edu.au" igorh@it.uts.edu.au Paper:  HYPERLINK "http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-135/067.pdf" http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-135/067.pdf This paper looks at a way to simplify creation of learning environments from reusable learning objects by using a learning object classification, which can be used to semantically construct learning activities. Paper suggests three major object classes for this purpose: environment, subject and learning method objects. Again people and roles are not mentioned. A case study is given. I didnt attend this papers presentation and found it somewhat difficult to understand from reading the paper. Could be worth investigating if the abstract interests you though. Learning technology theory Panel session: Multiple Perspectives And Theoretical Dialogue In Learning Technology Martin Oliver ( HYPERLINK "mailto:martin.oliver@ucl.ac.uk" martin.oliver@ucl.ac.uk), Grainne Conole ( HYPERLINK "mailto:g.c.conole@soton.ac.uk" g.c.conole@soton.ac.uk), John Cook ( HYPERLINK "mailto:j.cook@unl.ac.uk" j.cook@unl.ac.uk), Andrew Ravenscroft ( HYPERLINK "mailto:a.ravenscroft@unl.ac.uk" a.ravenscroft@unl.ac.uk), Sarah Currier ( HYPERLINK "mailto:sarah.currier@strath.ac.uk" sarah.currier@strath.ac.uk) Paper:  HYPERLINK "http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-139/075.pdf" http://docushare.unitec.ac.nz/dscgi/ds.py/Get/File-139/075.pdf Paper includes an introduction and background. It builds on a series of previous panels, workshops and other discussion fora on this topic in the last few years. It then includes the following positional papers: Positional Paper 1: The Role of Dialogue in Computer-Based Learning: A Position Paper on Approaches to Theory John Cook & Andrew Ravenscroft Positional Paper 2: Embedding Theory into Learning Technology Practice with Toolkits Grainne Conole & Martin Oliver Positional Paper 3: Coming Out of the Library Closet: Information Science and Learning Technology Sarah Currier ICCE I have a copy of the proceedings, and will also include contact details of paper authors where available to follow up. Some of the papers are available to download for free from the ICCE website, some only appeared in a hard-copy supplementary procedings (which I also have) and others are available to be purchased individually from the same site (this is also where to order the full proceedings):  HYPERLINK "http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/1509toc.htm" http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/1509toc.htm Interoperability Issues in General Workshop: Critical Success Factors for eLearning Implementation Sarah Currier and Lorna Campbell contributed the position paper: Learning Technologies Critical Success Factors for eLearning Implementation: Educational Technology Interoperability Standards. This is available online at:  HYPERLINK "http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15091542.pdf" http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15091542.pdf and provides a good short introduction for managers and academics on why interoperability and standards are important, and outlining the CETIS model for supporting communities of practice in this area. Slides are also available from:  HYPERLINK "mailto:sarah.currier@strath.ac.uk" sarah.currier@strath.ac.uk. The workshop was well-attended and there was energetic discussion, with a lot of interest in and support for interoperability standards generated. This workshop will be developed into a book on critical success factors for e-learning. Learning Objects Accessing learning objects within the multi-modal description framework Jisong Chen, Eva Heinrich, Elizabeth Kemp, Massey University Paper:  HYPERLINK "http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090117.pdf" http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090117.pdf Abstract:  HYPERLINK "http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090117abs.htm" http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090117abs.htm This short paper reports on a tool called the Multi-Modal Description Framework (MMDF) developed to handle descriptions of multimedia learning objects by: identifying multimedia files as learning objects; defining segments in the learning objects that deal with specific concepts; attaching a description to the segments defined in the previous step; formulating retrievals requested that match these descriptions. Features of MMDF includes access to documents of multiple media types for position- and time-based segmentation and handling different types of user. Although the paper references the LOM in the introduction there is no mention in detail of metadata schemas. IMS Content Packaging / Metadata / LIP / Learning Design? Reusing adaptive educational e-content: the KOD Vertical Learning Portal Demetrios Sampson, Charalampos Karagiannidis, Centre for Research and Technology, Greece. Paper only available in printed supplementary proceedings. The KOD VLP builds on an extension of IMS CP for the description of collections of learning objects together with rules which determine how the should be selected for different learner profiles. The learner profile editor includes a default set of learner profile characteristics for the description of learner profiles based on IMS LIP. The KOD VLP facilitates the publishing, searching, interchange and re-use of: knwoledge maps; instructional strategies (no mention is made of IMS LD or EML); learning objects; learner profiles; and adaptation rules. ADL SCORM The Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) A Critical Review Oliver Bohl, Angela Frankfurth, Jrg Schellhase, Udo Winand , University of Kassel Paper:  HYPERLINK "http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090950.pdf" http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090950.pdf Abstract:  HYPERLINK "http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090950abs.htm" http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090950abs.htm This paper presents pros and cons of SCORM from the point of view of a German inter-university Web-based training implementation. Second paper (below) presented by same authors looks at a case study on producing guidelines for content authors of these Web-based trainings, including AICC and SCORM for interoperability. Guidelines A Critical Success Factor in the Development of Web-based Trainings Oliver Bohl, Angela Frankfurth, Jrg Schellhase, Udo Winand, University of Kassel Paper:  HYPERLINK "http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090545.pdf" http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090545.pdf Abstract:  HYPERLINK "http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090545abs.htm" http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090545abs.htm See above paper also. Presents a case study on producing guidelines for content authors of these Web-based trainings, including AICC and SCORM for interoperability. Guidelines themselves are all in German. Contact Oliver Bohl at:  HYPERLINK "mailto:bohl@wirtschaft.uni-kassel.de" bohl@wirtschaft.uni-kassel.de Learning Design Learning Activity Modelling & Management Claude Vieville, Yvan Peter, Laboratorie TRIGONE, University of Sciences and Technologies of Lille, France Paper may be purchased online. Abstract:  HYPERLINK "http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090288abs.htm" http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090288abs.htm Paper presents the first step of research into developing services for the management of learning activities, including the sequence of units a learner is working through. Previous work on learning resource management included an implementation of the LOM. Further work will include adding a pedagogical layer over the functional layer, most likely utilising or implementing EML. Contact Claude Vieville at:  HYPERLINK "mailto:claude.vieville@univ-lille1.fr" claude.vieville@univ-lille1.fr Accessibility Metadata Content attributes that affect learning in communities with special educational needs Nikos Manouselis, Sofia Koukouvinou, Kiki Panagiotou, Rena Psichidou, Demetrios Sampson, Centre for Research and Technology, Greece. Paper in printed supplementary proceedings only. Looks at a project NEMO, a development involving extension of the IEEE LOM to describe resources for people with cognitive disabilities. Ontologies Workshop I attended a workshop on concepts and ontologies in web-based educational systems, for which I have notes and a copy of the proceedings which are hard copy only. For further info. email me on  HYPERLINK "mailto:sarah.currier@strath.ac.uk" sarah.currier@strath.ac.uk e-Libraries / e-Learning Integrating resources for users in a learning environment Raul Morales (Japan; originally from Mexico) and Yoneo Yano, Tokushima University  HYPERLINK "mailto:raulms@is.tokushima.ac.jp" raulms@is.tokushima.ac.jp Paper in printed supplementary proceedings only. Paper describes elibrary tool for integration into online learning environments. Michael Brooks: RMIT University Library; working on library/VLE integration stuff. Email:  HYPERLINK "mailto:mike.brooks@rmit.edu.au" mike.brooks@rmit.edu.au I also presented a paper on the INSPIRAL project: Integrating Information Resources and Online Learning in the UK Sarah Currier Paper may be purchased online. Abstract:  HYPERLINK "http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090818abs.htm" http://www.computer.org/proceedings/icce/1509/15090818abs.htm Or email me for a copy:  HYPERLINK "mailto:sarah.currier@strath.ac.uk" sarah.currier@strath.ac.uk. 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