ࡱ> 7 BbjbjUU R47|7|=l  $$$8$ $ $ $ 4X $8-% R R R R :/C $$$$$$$$& )^$$O"OO$$$R R $O$R $R $O$f#|$$$R | 2[(8$ _X#$$$0-%#_)_)$88$$$$ HYPERLINK "/"  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://www.cetis.ac.uk/lib/image/masthead_logo.gif" \* MERGEFORMATINET  CETIS Further education group, Newark, November 2002 A single currency? Interoperability and the curriculum This short paper: Describes some developments in curriculum interoperability Identifies the major gap in work to date Invites further discussion Introduction The interoperability movement, understandably, concentrated originally on the related technology issues the how of learning. Thus to a large extent the specifications that have been, or are being, developed focussed on the nuts and bolts of e-learning: metadata, learning objects, QTI etc. When LSDA first encountered interoperability in the mid 90s, colleagues recognised that there was a gap in the movement: the what of learning. In other words issues of curriculum design and delivery were (again understandably) missing from the discourse. LSDA Over a number of years LSDA has developed its work on a credit framework. It is argued that everyone gains from a clear understanding and statement of what people learn, understand and can do. Furthermore there is a clear logic in assigning a level and size (credit) to learning. In other words, and recognising the need for contextualisation and performance criteria, any and all learning can be described within a logical framework and this framework can be used for various purposes. Above all it creates a common currency for learning. The full related technology of the credit framework can be explored via  HYPERLINK "http://www.lsda.org.uk/programmes/credit/" http://www.lsda.org.uk/programmes/credit/ and see the note below*. Colleagues in IMS and LTSC and elsewhere (see below) have discussed specifications for competence, which LSDA sees as going some way towards to its credit ideal. There have been major developments in Europe (also below). So what is happening nationally and globally in this area? EML  HYPERLINK "http://eml.ou.nl/introduction/index.htm" http://eml.ou.nl/introduction/index.htm Steve Jeyes has worked closely with the Open University of the Netherlands, which has developed an Educational Modelling Language (EML). To date no comprehensive notational system exists that allows one to codify units of study (e.g. courses, course components and study programmes), in an integral fashion. EML is the first system to achieve precisely this. EML describes not just the content of a unit of study (texts, tasks, tests, assignments) but also the roles, relations, interactions and activities of students and teachers. The major EML implementation is in XML (eXtensible Mark-up Language), an internationally accepted meta-language for the structured description of documents and data. Various kinds of specifications with which educational content may be codified are under development. Examples are initiatives taken by IMS, IEEE-LTSC, Dublin Core and ADL-SCORM. EML does not make these initiatives superfluous, nor does it run contrary to their aims. If anything, it takes many of the ideas voiced by them one step further, by developing a more comprehensive notational system. EML allows [users] to model a variety of pedagogies for education. One may use EML to model for instance a competence-based pedagogy, problem based learning, performance support, self-study packages or even traditional face-to-face teaching. When using EML there is no need to worry about the delivery mode during content development. EML guarantees that investments in content will last for a long time; because of the uniformity of notation that EML brings, an instrument for comparative research on the effectiveness of educational structures emerges. Shortly, EML ensures the interoperability, re-usability, and compatibility of learning materials in the future. (From the EML web site) IMS 1  HYPERLINK "http://imsglobal.org/learningdesign/index.cfm" http://imsglobal.org/learningdesign/index.cfm IMS released its Learning Design Information Model (Version 1.0 Public Draft Specification) on 18 October 2002. This document contains the Learning Design Information Model. It represents an integration of the Educational Modelling Language (EML) work, submitted to the [Learning Design work group] by the Open University Netherlands, and existing IMS specifications, notably Content Packaging that this specification extends and builds on, but also Meta-Data and Simple Sequencing. A key task of the Learning Design [work group] was the development of a framework that supports pedagogical diversity and innovation, while promoting the exchange and interoperability of e-learning materials. The OU Netherlands carried out extensive examination and analysis of a wide range of pedagogical approaches prior to developing EML as a relatively concise 'meta-language' that could capture this diversity. Regardless of the pedagogy involved, in practice every learning design came down to: a Method prescribing various Activities for learner and staff Roles in a certain order. Each activity refers to a collection of specific objects and services (called the 'Environment') needed to perform the activity. In order to support the description of individualized learning designs, learner Properties, Conditions and Notifications are needed. The designs which can be described by this meta-language might involve a single user or multiple users; the learning and instructional designers and providers might take a behaviorist, cognitivist, constructivist or some other approach; they might require learners to work separately or collaboratively, but the OUNL studies found these could all be captured in terms of a Method containing Roles, Activity-structures and Environments and a number of other concepts elaborated around these. A learning design is an integral part of any unit of learning. A 'unit of learning' is an abstract term used to refer to any delimited piece of education or training, such as a course, a module, a lesson, etc. It is noted that a 'unit of learning' represents more than just a collection of ordered resources to learn, it includes a variety of prescribed activities (problem solving activities, search activities, discussion activities, peer assessment activities, etcetera), assessments, services and support facilities provided by teachers, trainers and other staff members. Which activities, which resources, which roles and which workflow [are] dependent on the learning design in the unit of learning. A unit of learning can be modelled as an IMS Content Package by including an IMS Learning Design in the package. An IMS content package is called a 'Unit of learning' if and only if it includes a valid IMS learning-design element in the organizations part of the packages manifest. A Unit of Learning includes a manifest, a learning design, resources, possible (sub-) manifests and physical files. IMS 2  HYPERLINK "http://imsglobal.org/competencies/index.cfm" http://imsglobal.org/competencies/index.cfm After some extensive technical fine tuning, IMS just made version 1.0 of the Re-useable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO) spec available. [The IMS Technical Board approved Version 1 in October 2002.] The purpose of this spec is to make it easy to refer to things like learning outcomes, skills, knowledge and tasks. This is particularly useful when information is required for career plans or when referring to course prerequisites or course outcomes. The spec itself started life in the Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC) of the IEEE. As a full standard setting body, IEEE felt that specifications were best left to other organisations, which is why it ended up in IMS. After a fairly extensive period of extending the spec and adjusting it to conventions in other IMS specs, it is now available as a full 1.0. The general idea of RDCEO is to provide a kind of coat hanger for competency definitions. It may sound peculiar, but the spec is not meant to actually try to define any skill or piece of knowledge. It doesn't even try to define what exactly a (re-useable) competency means or support general structures of competencies. Imagine, for example, a competency like the ability to play football. You could decompose that competency into smaller competencies like running, kicking a ball and game strategy. IMS RDCEO will only be able to store references to 'running', 'kicking a ball' and 'game strategy', and 'ability to play football', but it won't of itself indicate what the relations between these competencies are. i.e. it doesn't do classification. What RDCEO does do is provide consistent pointers to competency definitions that have been drawn up elsewhere- generally within the sectors or domains where they matter. The reason behind the pointing-rather-than-defining is that there are already quite a few specific competency definitions and structured competency models out there, in repositories. IMS RCDEO merely provides a way in which each of these existing definitions can be referenced or exchanged in a standard way. It's a meta-standard, if you like. Rather than re-invent the wheel, or impose its own way of doing things, RCDEO is happy to play piggy in the middle. (Objective: Re-usable competency, Wilbert Kraan, CETIS staff, November 01, 2002) This IMS specification includes the LSDA credit framework as its only case study. IEEE/LTSC  HYPERLINK "http://ltsc.ieee.org/wg20/index.html" http://ltsc.ieee.org/wg20/index.html The Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC) is chartered by the  HYPERLINK "http://www.computer.org/standard/standard.htm" \t "_blank" IEEE Computer Society Standards Activity Board to develop accredited technical standards, recommended practices and guides for learning technology. The LTSC coordinates formally and informally with  HYPERLINK "http://ltsc.ieee.org/organizations.htm" other organizations that produce specifications and standards for similar purposes. P1484.20 is the LTSCs Competency Definitions Working Group. The purpose of its proposed standard is to define a universally acceptable Competency Definition model to allow the creation, exchange and reuse of Competency Definition in applications such as Learning Management Systems, Competency or Skill Gap Analysis, Learner and other Competency profiles, etc. The standard is needed because there are currently many definitions of the terms Learning Objective, Competency and Skill, and very little agreement between how those definitions can be used to define reusable data models. This standard uses a general definition that can be semantically tightened or loosened in the data itself, while conserving the same data model regardless of how strictly a particular organization or institution requires the data to be formulated. This standard specifically does not cover [inter alia] a competency model, or a taxonomy of competencies. BSI  HYPERLINK "http://edd.bsi.org.uk/link.php3/IST/43" http://edd.bsi.org.uk/link.php3/IST/43 The British Standards Institutes IST/43/-/3 panel was set up to look at Interoperability between Curricula, Syllabi and Competency Map and to develop BS 8419. The project for the development of the Standard was approved and the Standard was planned to be in three parts: - BS8419-1 Specification for mapping between normative standards and other metadata systems - BS8419-2 A code of practice for the development of localised metadata systems - BS8419-3 A code of practice for development of interoperability between systems A recent meeting of the panel agreed that the title might lead to confusion about the intention of the standard and that the three parts might not adequately describe the scope. Therefore documentation is being revised to emphasise that the intention is to support interoperability between curriculum information systems, rather than between elements within curricula. What is still to be done? The notes about the LTSC and BSI panel above highlight the area in which LSDA believes development activity is still needed. All of the pieces of work above make a vital contribution to the operation and inter-working of learning activities. But they are neutral (or all-embracing) about the determination and definition of the content of what is being learned. This is, for example, because the educational offer across and within nations and sectors is so varied. Little of it is based on common terminology, let alone agreement on what constitutes learning and how that might be measured. There is NO COMMON CURRENCY. That is why LSDA is so keen to see further take-up of its credit framework, which is used as the basis for the Ufi offer, by the Open College movement, as well as in Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand. It is heartening to note that Success for All calls for action on credit. In its response LSDA has said: We strongly support the commitment to explore the potential for opening up unit achievement and the feasibility of a credit-based approach. We believe that unitisation and a credit-based framework would support a number of government priorities, including the ambition to bring about a step-change in workforce development. The lack of a responsive qualifications framework hampers the capacity of providers to meet business needs, and leads to disillusion and frustration among employers. A unit and credit-based system could meet the demand by employers for skills rather than qualifications and could also assist providers in addressing business needs for customised and flexible skills mixes. In addition, a credit framework for the post-16 sector would provide a stronger basis for engaging new learners and widening participation, and would provide a common currency for measuring the range of achievement, whether occupationally specific, vocational or academic, and whether nationally validated or locally customised. The Learning and Skills sector needs a coherent framework for measuring learner achievement across the range of its provision. *LSDA has argued that the credit framework has a range of applications across the UK education and training system. In the future it has the potential to be used for the development of a European or international form of educational currency. Other applications of the credit framework include: National Level Developing qualifications systems Further and Higher Education CATS (Credit Accumulation and Transfer) System Funding and planning mechanism Measuring national targets Front end of National Record of Achievement or Progress File Local/Institutional Curriculum mapping Curriculum design and development Unitisation Modularisation and flexible programme Marketing provision Local and regional progression agreements Institutional Local and regional credit transcripts Reporting on quality Institutional performance/league tables Tailor-made provision for employers and community The credit framework may also be used as the strategic focal point for institutional development- several developments for the cost of one! What next? LSDA has disseminated its credit ideas widely across the interoperability community. As well as being taken up within an IMS specification (see above), the credit framework has been used in discussion by all the organisations noted, by HR-XML, the MEG, Prometeus and others. We would welcome opportunities to discuss our ideas in other forums and hope that colleagues will explore the various publications and web sites, which explain and exemplify the framework. 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