ࡱ> eKM ߱bjbj== SYWWs<,lT T T ^ & & & d hhh4| saX*:dd$ձYD```````$c 3eza& S^aj j dd-aj d& dX>` M6K 6& @d e6kb ތh?@Ca0sa?`e}f@ j j j j  Report on the Technical Evaluation of the JISC funded Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland Managed Learning Environments Programme By Tom Franklin Franklin Consulting Franklin Consulting 9 Redclyffe Road Withington Manchester M20 3JR Phone: 0161 434 3454 Email: Tom@franklin-consulting.co.uk URL: http:// franklin-consulting.co.uk Contents  TOC \o "1-3" \h \z  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330345" 1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc61330345 \h 1  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330346" 1.1 Method  PAGEREF _Toc61330346 \h 1  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330347" 1.2 Standards or specifications  PAGEREF _Toc61330347 \h 1  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330348" 1.3 IMS specifications  PAGEREF _Toc61330348 \h 2  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330349" 1.4 XML  PAGEREF _Toc61330349 \h 5  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330350" 1.4.1 What is it  PAGEREF _Toc61330350 \h 5  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330351" 1.4.2 Why use it  PAGEREF _Toc61330351 \h 5  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330352" 1.4.3 Issues  PAGEREF _Toc61330352 \h 5  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330353" 1.5 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)  PAGEREF _Toc61330353 \h 7  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330354" 1.5.1 What is it  PAGEREF _Toc61330354 \h 7  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330355" 1.5.2 Why use it  PAGEREF _Toc61330355 \h 8  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330356" 1.5.3 Issues  PAGEREF _Toc61330356 \h 8  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330357" 2 The SWaNI programme  PAGEREF _Toc61330357 \h 9  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330358" 3 Projects  PAGEREF _Toc61330358 \h 11  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330359" 3.1 Virtual Learning Environment to Student Record  PAGEREF _Toc61330359 \h 11  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330360" 3.1.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc61330360 \h 11  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330361" 3.1.2 Summary of projects  PAGEREF _Toc61330361 \h 11  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330362" 3.1.3 Description of projects  PAGEREF _Toc61330362 \h 17  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330363" 3.1.4 Issues  PAGEREF _Toc61330363 \h 22  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330364" 3.2 Content Packaging (Sir Gr)  PAGEREF _Toc61330364 \h 23  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330365" 3.2.1 Description of project  PAGEREF _Toc61330365 \h 23  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330366" 3.2.2 Issues  PAGEREF _Toc61330366 \h 26  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330367" 3.2.3 Conclusions  PAGEREF _Toc61330367 \h 27  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330368" 3.3 Personal development record / plan  PAGEREF _Toc61330368 \h 28  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330369" 3.3.1 Description of Project  PAGEREF _Toc61330369 \h 28  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330370" 3.3.2 Issues  PAGEREF _Toc61330370 \h 30  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330371" 4 Discussion on the status of MLEs and IMS  PAGEREF _Toc61330371 \h 32  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330372" 5 Conclusions and Recommendations  PAGEREF _Toc61330372 \h 34  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330373" 5.1 Conclusions  PAGEREF _Toc61330373 \h 34  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330374" 5.1.1 Correct to use XML  PAGEREF _Toc61330374 \h 34  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330375" 5.1.2 Correct to use IMS  PAGEREF _Toc61330375 \h 34  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330376" 5.1.3 Correct to investigate SOAP  PAGEREF _Toc61330376 \h 34  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330377" 5.1.4 Programme too short  PAGEREF _Toc61330377 \h 34  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330378" 5.2 Recommendations  PAGEREF _Toc61330378 \h 35  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330379" Appendices  PAGEREF _Toc61330379 \h 37  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330380" Appendix A: LIP mappings for PDP/PDR  PAGEREF _Toc61330380 \h 38  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330381" Identification LIP Mapping  PAGEREF _Toc61330381 \h 38  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330382" Learner Activity Data LIP Mapping  PAGEREF _Toc61330382 \h 43  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330383" Goal LIP Mapping  PAGEREF _Toc61330383 \h 46  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330384" Appendix B: Distinction Systems XML  PAGEREF _Toc61330384 \h 50  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330385" Sample XML  PAGEREF _Toc61330385 \h 50  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330386" Errors  PAGEREF _Toc61330386 \h 51  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330387" Appendix C: Learner status in IMS Specification, QLS and Learnwise  PAGEREF _Toc61330387 \h 52  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc61330388" Appendix D: Coleg Menai Use Cases  PAGEREF _Toc61330388 \h 52  Introduction This report is a technical evaluation of the JISC Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland Managed Learning Environment (SWaNI) Programme which, building on previous work in England, investigated whether vendors can achieve interoperability between core component systems found in Managed Learning Environments (MLE) by designing and building each component system to agreed specifications. MLEs are of increasing importance in further and higher education as we move to more individuated learning and teaching, increasing numbers of students and reducing per capita resources. There are, in theory, three ways in which an institution could achieve a managed learning environment: Buy one "off the shelf" - but this is not possible as no such solution exists, nor is likely to exist given the variability between institutions. Buy solutions from a small number of vendors who are working together to offer an MLE and provide the necessary interoperability. This does not exist at the moment, and is unlikely to offer most institutions a satisfactory solution as they cannot move all their systems at once, and so will need to integrate whatever they already have with whatever they are purchasing during the transition, which is likely to last many years. Integrate a variety of systems from different sources. This may be done using systems created by the vendors, where they are working together in strategic alliances, by specific developments for each implementation or through the use of open standards. The SWaNI programme was investigating the effectiveness of using the last option to achieve interoperability through the use of open standards and specifications. Method The report is derived from a close analysis of the reports that the projects have produced, together with discussions with members of CETIS, the project management team and some of the project staff. Standards or specifications Before reviewing the projects it is worth laying out some of the issues that they needed to address. The projects were looking at the use of open standards and specifications to achieve interoperability. It is therefore worth exploring the difference between standards and specifications, and then looking at the two most important sets of specifications that were used in these projects. In this area there are a variety of standards and specifications, most of which are being monitored and informed by the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards (CETIS). Bodies active in the area include IMS, ADL and IEEE. Only IMS has specifications covering all the areas addressed by projects in this programme, and in the areas that all are active they are rapidly converging, hence the selection of IMS is sensible, even though it is a specification rather than a standard. It is worth noting that, although IMS is often referred to as a standard, it is, in fact, a specification and that these are significantly different. A standard has official recognition through either a national standards body (such as the British Standards Institute in the UK) or the International Standards Organisation or one of the international bodies that are affiliated to it. In Information Technology the most important of the affiliated bodies defining standards is the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). There is a long, and unfortunately very slow, method by which standards are approved, which is designed to achieve consensus amongst all the participants. This means that it takes literally years for a standard to be approved from when it is first proposed. Seven years is not an atypical length of time from the original proposal to final approval of a standard. In many areas covered by standards this is helpful - it should not be easy to move from 240v 50Hz AC with square pin plugs for instance and we do not want a standard like that changed easily. Information technology is different and very fast moving. Standards which are seven years in the making are ignored or by-passed or are defining what has already become standard practice a long time ago. To get around this a number of bodies have been set up to address a wide variety of issues. Anyone can set such a body up, and many of them are consortia of vendors with a few having started in academia. The most important would include the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) which defines the underlying standards for the internet, such as TCP/IP, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) which has been defining the standards used by world wide web, such as HTML, and IMS Global Consortium (IMS) which has been defining a variety of XML based specifications to support the education community (see below for a discussion of XML). In many cases the specifications that are developed by these and other similar bodies go on to become standards, and they may be "fast tracked" through the standards process if they have themselves used similar methods of achieving consensus in the development of standards. Fast tracked is a relative term and it still takes years to achieve a standard. For instance, the world is mostly working to HTML 4.01, while the official standard is HTML 2.0! Within the area covered by the SWaNI projects using the IMS specifications only one of these has so far become an official standard, and this is the Learning Object Metadata (LOM) which differs slightly from the IMS metadata specification, which was one of the starting points for its definition, as it also incorporates ideas from SCORM (a competing specification) amongst other places. IMS has defined a series of different specifications, covering different parts of the education life cycle, and these are very briefly outlined in order to provide the context of the projects. IMS specifications IMS has defined, or is working on, specifications in at least 11 different areas. These are: Metadata - metadata is data about data, and this specification is used to describe learning objects so that they can be located and shared. The IMS metadata specifications now equivalent to the IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM) standard. Content Packaging - The IMS Content Packaging Specification provides the functionality to describe and package learning materials, such as an individual course or a collection of courses, into interoperable, distributable packages. Content Packaging addresses the description, structure, and location of online learning materials and the definition of some particular content types. The Content Packaging Specification is aimed primarily at content producers, learning management system vendors, computing platform vendors and learning service providers. Learning materials described and packaged using the IMS Content Packaging XML format should be interoperable with any tool that supports the Specification. Content creators can develop and distribute material knowing that it can be delivered on any compliant system, thereby protecting their investment in rich content development. The final version of the IMS Content Packaging Specification (version 1.1.2) was released to the public in August 2001. Simple Sequencing - the IMS Simple Sequencing Specification defines a method for representing the intended behaviour of an authored learning experience such that any VLE can sequence discrete learning activities in a consistent way. The specification defines the required behaviours and functionality that conforming systems must implement. It incorporates rules that describe the branching or flow of instruction through content according to the outcomes of a learner's interactions with content. This Specification was released to the public in March 2003. Learning Information Package Specification (LIP) - Learner Information is a collection of information about a Learner (individual or groups of learners) or a Producer of learning content (creators, providers or vendors). The IMS Learner Information Package (IMS LIP) specification addresses the interoperability of internet-based Learner Information systems with other systems that support the Internet learning environment. The intent of the specification is to define a set of packages that can be used to import data into and extract data from an IMS compliant Learner Information server. A Learner Information server may exchange data with Learner Delivery systems or with other Learner Information servers. It is the responsibility of the Learner Information server to allow the owner of the learner information to define what part of the learner information can be shared with other systems. The core structures of the IMS LIP are based upon accessibility, activities, affiliations, competencies, goals, identifications, interests, qualifications, certifications, licences, relationship, security keys and transcripts. Version 1.0 of the IMS Learner Information Package Specification was released to the public in March 2001. Enterprise - The IMS Enterprise Information specification is intended to support interoperability between virtual learning environments (VLE) (called Learning Management Systems in the specification) and the following classes of Enterprise Systems: Human Resource Systems which track skills and competencies and define eligibility for training programs; Student Administration Systems which support the functions of course catalogue management, class scheduling, academic program registration, class enrolment, attendance tracking, grade book functions, grading, and many other education functions; Training Administration Systems support course administration, course enrolment, and course completion functions for work force training; Library Management Systems track library patrons, manage collections of physical and electronic learning objects, and manage and track access to these materials. The scope of the IMS Enterprise Specification is focused on defining interoperability between systems residing within the same enterprise or organization. Data exchange may be possible between separate enterprises, but the documents comprising the IMS Enterprise Specification are not targeted at solving the issues of data integrity, communication, overall security and other issues inherent when investigating cross-enterprise data exchange. Question & Test Interoperability Specification - The IMS Question & Test Interoperability Specification provides proposed standard XML language for describing questions and tests. The specification has been produced to allow the interoperability of content within assessment systems. Accessibility - The Accessibility for LIP defines two new sub-schemas for the IMS Learning Information Package that allow the specification of accessibility preferences and learner accommodations. These preferences go beyond support for disabled people to include kinds of accessibility needs such as mobile computing, noisy environments, etc. Competency Definitions - The Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO) specification provides a means to create common understandings of competencies that appear as part of a learning or career plan, as learning pre-requisites, or as learning outcomes. The information model in this specification can be used to exchange these definitions between learning systems, human resource systems, learning content, competency or skills repositories, and other relevant systems. RDCEO provides unique references to descriptions of competencies or objectives for inclusion in other information models. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) is using the RDCEO specification as the basis for an IEEE competency definition standard. Producing the standard will involve converting RDCEO to the IEEE format and conducting the IEEE process for approving a standard. Digital Repositories -The IMS Digital Repositories v1.0 final specification, released January 30, 2003, provides recommendations for the interoperation of the most common repository functions. These recommendations should be capable of being implemented across services to enable them to present a common interface. On the broadest level, this specification defines digital repositories as being any collection of resources that are accessible via a network without prior knowledge of the structure of the collection. Repositories may hold actual assets or the meta-data that describe assets. The assets and their meta-data do not need to be held in the same repository. This specification is intended to utilize schemas already defined elsewhere (e.g., IMS Meta-Data and Content Packaging), rather than attempt to introduce any new schema. Learning Design - Learning design supports the use of a wide range of pedagogies in online learning. Rather than attempting to capture the specifics of many pedagogies, it does this by providing a generic and flexible language. This language is designed to enable many different pedagogies to be expressed. The approach has the advantage over alternatives in that only one set of learning design and runtime tools then need to be implemented in order to support the desired wide range of pedagogies. The language was originally developed at the Open University of the Netherlands (OUNL), after extensive examination and comparison of a wide range of pedagogical approaches and their associated learning activities. Several iterations of the developing language were needed to obtain a good balance between generality and pedagogic expressiveness. Vocabulary Definition Exchange - The IMS Vocabulary Definition Exchange (VDEX) specification defines a grammar for the exchange of value lists of various classes (collections often denoted "vocabulary"). Specifically, VDEX defines a grammar for the exchange of simple machine-readable lists of values, or terms, together with information that may aid a human being in understanding the meaning or applicability of the various terms. VDEX may be used to express valid data for use in instances of IEEE LOM, IMS Metadata, IMS Learner Information Package and ADL SCORM, etc, for example. In these cases, the terms are often not human language words or phrases but more abstract tokens. VDEX can also express strictly hierarchical schemes in a compact manner while allowing for more loose networks of relationship to be expressed if required. All the IMS specifications are defined using XML so it worth looking briefly at what XML is and what it offers. XML What is it XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is a flexible way to create common information formats and share both the format and the data. It requires the builders of systems to agree on a common way to describe the information about something, such as a student record and then describe the information format with XML. Such a standard way of describing data enables a system to send data to another system in such a way that both can understand and make use of that information. XML is a formal recommendation from the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). It is similar to Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Both XML and HTML contain markup symbols to describe the contents of a page or file. HTML is concerned with the content and layout of a Web page (mainly text and graphic images) primarily in terms of how it is to be displayed and interacted with. XML on the other hand describes the content in terms of what data is being described, that is its meaning or semantics. For example would indicate that the data that followed was the student's name, and this might then be broken down into surname, given name and nickname. The XML for this would look like: Franklin Thomas Tom Note that all the tags are paired, with the closing tag prefaced by a slash (/). This tightly defined structure means that it is easy for computers to process it and the use of human readable tag names is supposed to make it readable by people. However that is not to be recommended and where it is necessary to look at the XML it is strongly recommended that one use a tool to format the data and make it more readable. Examples of XML from the project are included in the appendices, which also demonstrate why it better to read the XML with the support of a suitable tool. XML is "extensible" because the user can define their own tags. This is how specifications such as IMS are defined. XML is actually a simplified subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), the standard for how to create a document structure. Why use it XML is important because it allows data to be shared in a common format that is well understood and can be manipulated by computers in ways which are well understood. It also has the advantage of being a neutral format that all the suppliers can use without having to pay licence fees or worry about infringing the intellectual property rights of other companies. Issues There are two main issues with XML that the SWaNI programme has highlighted: Specifications may not cover what is needed When a standard such as IMS is defined a considerable amount of work goes into determining how it may be used, what data is going to be wanted and what that data will look like. However, until a specification is tested in live environments it likely that it will not meet all the needs of the situation. This is made more problematic as different organisations will have differing needs and things which are wanted by some may not be needed by others. IMS is trying to meet the needs of all education sectors (pre-school, primary, secondary and tertiary) in all countries. Naturally, there will be items which are only needed in some countries or some sectors. Because IMS is defined in XML and because XML is extensible the additional data may be defined in what is called an application profile. An application profile is a particular version of the standard which may have additional terms and may have particular ways of using those terms. For instance, defining particular vocabularies for the elements. Work had already been done to define an application profile in the previous programme in England (MLE Interoperability Pilots in FE) and part of the purpose of this programme was to see how far the profiles that had been developed to meet the specific needs of English further education colleges were applicable in the other parts of the UK, and what adaptations might be necessary to achieve interoperability throughout the UK. Much of the work in England had focused on getting information from the virtual learning environment back into the student record system to meet the reporting requirements of the Learning Skills Council. Clearly, the reporting requirements for each of the other further education funding councils is different and there must be questions as to how general the initial work was, and what might be needed to achieve interoperability throughout the UK. In particular, can a single application profile be used or is there a need to develop a separate application profile for each of the territories within the UK. This may seem an esoteric and not very important point. From the suppliers' point of view, though, it is very important, as it determines whether they need to develop one or four separate application profiles. As there is considerable work in defining, implementing and supporting each profile this has an impact on the costs for them, and thus for colleges. If we can indeed use a single application profile then the costs will be less. However, it must fully meet the needs of all colleges for all the work they do. With the increasing amount of higher education delivered by further education colleges the application profile must also meet these needs too as neither colleges nor vendors will want to have to support two application profiles if it is at all possible to avoid doing so. When we look at the Personal Development Record the issue of whether an application profile can work across the UK is even more important as students will move to different parts of the UK and they should be able to take their PDR with them (or have it automatically passed from college to college, college to university and college to employer). Different interpretations Even assuming that everything that one needs is covered by the specification, there may be problems with the interpretation of the specifications. Specifications are written for humans to read and are written in a semi-formal language rather than a formal language such as VDM or Z. While this allows us to understand them, it also leaves much open to interpretation, and if different vendors interpret the same specification in incompatible ways then interoperability will not be achieved. The specifications are also not complete in that they do not cover local issues (ie country or region or language specific issues) nor are all the vocabularies defined. Vocabularies are important as the data that is exchanged must be meaningful to both systems, to give a simple example the VLE and student record system may need to exchange information on the status of the student. If one system uses terms like Continuing/ Completed/ Withdrawn/ Transferred/ Suspended while another uses InProgress/Completed/Withdrawn/Transferred/Referred then the systems will not be able to exchange data without translating it. This can be made more complex if the terms are not simply synonyms (in this example "Suspended" in the first system has no equivalent in the second, while "Referred" in the second has no equivalent in the first). It can be even worse where there are a series of overlapping categories - where for instance different systems define educational level differently. To overcome this systems have to use agreed vocabularies and these to have to be defined and agreed by everyone who is going to use them. Having looked at IMS and XML which define what data should be passed between systems and how it should be written there is also a need to physically move the data from one system to the other. Again, there is a need for an agreed method for doing this and in December 2002 it was recommended that vendors should use the Simple Object Access Protocol to do this. Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) What is it Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is a way for a program to communicate with another program which is running on the same or another kind of an operating system by using the World Wide Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and its Extensible Markup Language (XML) as the mechanisms for information exchange. As HTTP has been implemented on all major operating systems it means that programmers of one system do not have to worry about the other system. SOAP specifies exactly how to encode an HTTP header and an XML file so that a program in one computer can call a program in another computer and pass it information. It also specifies how the called program can return a response. SOAP has three parts: An envelope that defines a framework for describing what is in a message and how to process it. A set of encoding rules for expressing instances of application-defined data types. A convention for representing remote procedure calls and responses. SOAP is fundamentally a stateless, one-way message exchange paradigm, but applications can create more complex interaction patterns (e.g., request/response, request/multiple responses, etc.) by combining such one-way exchanges with features provided by an underlying protocol and/or application-specific information. Why use it SOAP is part of the family of specifications defined by the W3C for use with the web. Although it was originally developed by Microsoft it is now an open standard (so anyone may use it without any restrictions). It is rapidly becoming the most important way for applications, including web services, to communicate because it is neutral as to application and operating system and it fits in well with other XML based standards that underlie the web services model. Issues As with XML and IMS the main issues that arise are the extensible nature of the protocol so that it is not sufficient for all parties to be using SOAP, they must also be using the same definition in the same way. The SWaNI programme The seven projects in the JISC funded Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland Interoperability Programme (SWaNI) covered three of the areas of interoperability that are needed in a managed learning environment (MLE). Five of the projects covered the movement of student and assessment data between VLE and student record systems (SRS), one looked at the interoperability of learning objects and the final project looked at personal development plans / records and how they might be moved between systems. These are some of the important areas that need to be developed for colleges and universities to be able to build MLE. Before looking at the projects it is worth looking briefly at what an MLE is and where these projects fit into them. These projects were building on the work of previous JISC funded projects in the English further education sector, and one of the things that the programme did was to develop a model of an MLE, building on previous work by Becta. In this model the learning environment is in the centre and there are a number of other systems and processes around the learning environment, supporting it. It is only in the last few years that it has been possible to seriously consider linking all the college systems and moving data between the various systems that go to make up college's IT infrastructure. It can be seen from the diagram that the projects are concentrating on a small but particularly important part of the MLE, with the VLE to student record system marked with a 1 and the learning resources marked with a 2. Personal development plans and personal development records are not shown. All the projects were investigating to what extent, and what ways, the IMS specifications meet their needs and can be used to automatically transfer data between systems that have come from different vendors.  EMBED Word.Picture.8  Managed Learning Environment model; adapted by JISC from a model produced by Becta Projects Virtual Learning Environment to Student Record Introduction This was the largest of the three areas covered by the SWaNI programme, with five of the seven funded projects looking at this area, and was intended to build directly from the work previously undertaken under the English programme "MLE Interoperability Pilots in FE". The English projects had concentrated on the information needed to populate VLEs with student information and the information that needs to be returned to complete the LSC funding record (the Individual Learning Record), but the SWaNI projects had a broader focus. The projects in this programme were more focused on the internal college processes and the information needed to populate the VLEs and return grades to the student record system. The table below briefly outlines the scope and results from each of the five projects funded in this area, looking at the systems that were integrated and the methods used (both the IMS standards and the transport protocols). There is also an indication of the results and technical problems that were encountered. Many of the problems that were encountered were not technical, most notably the late availability of software that had the features needed to complete the projects. Amongst the technical problems encountered (discussed in more detail below) were incompatible interpretations of the specifications, security issues, implementation of different methods (notably in the transport area where some vendors implemented SOAP and others did not). Summary of projects The table below summarises the activity of the five projects which were attempting to move data between their SRSs and their VLEs. It shows which systems they were using, together with the specifications that they chose to implement in order to transfer the data and the transport mechanisms that were used and highlights some of the key issues that the projects still need to resolve. While, as can be seen, none of the projects succeeded in getting a fully operational system up and running during the life of the project most of them are now well on the way towards achieving interoperability and it is to be expected that most of them will achieve it shortly. The main reason for this is that the time available under the SWaNI programme was simply too short to achieve everything that needed to be done in order to achieve the interoperability, given that considerable negotiation between the colleges and multiple vendors is required, followed by the time that the vendors need to implement whatever is agreed and that this will then need several cycles of testing and refinement. Coleg Llandrillo CymruBanff and Buchan CollegeFalkirkMenaiPerth CollegeCollege partnersColeg Llandrillo CymruBanff and Buchan College Scottish University for Industry Falkirk College of F&HE Fife College Glenrothes College Stevenson College Stow CollegeColeg MenaiPerth College Lauder CollegeVLETeknical Externally hosted by TeknicalSkillnetTeknicalGranada LearnwiseGranada Learnwise WebCTStudent record systemEBS from FD learningSITSSITS Capita UNIT-E QLS from Distinction Systems (formerly MicroCompass)Dita from CapitaProject technical aimsTransfer student information including course of study from MIS to VLE Transfer attainment data from VLE to MIS holding area for validation To include information where appropriate to record use of Welsh for assessmentLink the student record system in SITS to the user accounts system in Skillnet and the college Intranet, to automate enrolments for online courses and share access to support materials Enable transfer of data between components to create a synchronous lifelong learning log Exchange content between repositories of the systems promoting the creation of online learning material Use IMS standards to achieve the above thus ensuring that the packaging of online content is appropriate for alternative environments.To interface Teknicals Virtual Campus (as the VLE) can with SITS Vision and Capita's UNITe as the student record systems Test and implement the system at three of the five collegesTo use IMS Enterprise 1.1, where possible conforming to one of the UK FE profiles, to transfer data about students and courses between MIS (QLS) and the VLE (Learnwise). To create an interoperability engine which would work with any VLE and student record system and would also allow other business applications such as finance, personnel, timetabling, library systems, content repositories etc. To interoperate and exchange data in a standardised format. StatusUndergoing testing using a specially acquired server with upgraded versions of EBS and OracleUndergoing testing at end of project Have since gone into live productionAwaiting compatible versions of the applications No testing undertaken Capita have delivered a non SOAP version Teknical have produced a SOAP version SITS have not delivered a system capable of supporting compliant XMLSystem has yet to be testedSystem being tested at Lauder College (Dita / Learnwise) No tests possible between Dita and WebCT Demonstrated transfer of records from DITA to Learnwise, though this was not automated, and they were unable to transfer results the other way. Transfer between DITA and WebCT not demonstratedSpecificationIMS Enterprise Application Profiles for the English Further Education Sector version 0.9r2 Messaging Services Specification for Managed Learning Environments Version0.9.3IMS Learner Information Profile 1.0 "Approximately" Dublin coreIMS Enterprise Application Profiles for the English Further Education Sector version 0.9r2IMS Enterprise 1.1, using the solution developed by Stoke CollegeIMS Enterprise specification 1.01 was proposed, but was not supported by WebCTTransport protocol proposedSOAP The initial proposal was to make the transfer of information from the MIS to the VLE driven by students logging into the VLE which would then request the information from the MIS.SOAPSOAPSOAP was proposed in December but deemed by both vendors to be outside the scope of this project.SOAPTransport Protocol usedA specially constructed utility that extracts data from the MIS system based on a course identifier (course code), taking into account student status. This is then imported using a Java applet that allows for this simple data transfer process to take place.SOAPSOAP was implemented by Teknical but not by the other vendors in this project Currently there are incompatible transport protocolshttp post When a user logs into Learnwise, the system first sends the user ID and password Windows NT domain for validation. Valid user Ids are forwarded to the QLS system using the http post facilityUse of Capita's MLE link using a series of manual processesSpecial issuesExternal hosting of the VLE meant that an automated transfer of information would require access to the MIS across the internet. The college was not willing to allow this. To complete work they will need a newer version of EBS and of Oracle.Systems were not delivered during the project that were capable of interoperating and so it was not possible demonstrate interoperability. Require Teknical to supply non- SOAP version of system. Require SITS to supply an upgraded version of the software that supports compliant XML.The need to map Learnwise course codes to QLS course codes, which requires manual intervention. QLS XML does not conform to the profile (see appendix B for details). Granada Learning XML does not have an application profile and does not conform to IMS Enterprise specification 1.1. Incompatible data for student status (see appendix C). There is no element in IMS enterprise for the learner's language preference. As this is an important issue in Wales an element has been added in this implementation.Capita was not willing to implement IMS enterprise specification 1.1, but only the common set of versions 1.0 and 1.1.  Description of projects As all the projects had to go through very similar processes and undertake similar work in order to develop their interoperability there is little point in describing each project in detail. Instead what follows is a composite description which describes the main technical issues that the projects had to resolve with examples from the various projects. This description only looks at the technical issues that the projects had to address, and therefore somewhat simplifies the process, as at each stage there has to be negotiations with the vendors as to what they can provide as part of the system, what will be available in forthcoming versions and work which they may want to charge for. The last was not an issue in these projects as it formed the vendor's contribution to the projects. This means that the colleges had less leverage over what vendors would do in terms of both timescales and functionality than might otherwise have been the case. Develop Use cases At the start of the project it is necessary to define the requirements. There are many approaches to this, and the one selected here was the development of Use cases. A use case is a description of the behaviour of a system, which is written from the perspective of a user who has just told the system to do something. A use case captures the events that a user will see as a system responds to a single user request. They are not intended to capture the actual behaviour of a system, only how it appears to the user. A use case normally comes in three parts: The user action The normal response Responses to errors (either incorrect information offered by the user or a request that cannot be met eg. requesting information on a non-existent student). Use cases can be as simple or as complex as required, but typically are simple, easy to understand and form the starting point for the system. A single use case from Coleg Menai is reproduced here, their complete set of uses cases can be found in Appendix D. Name of initiating User / ActorMIS Operator1DescriptionEnrolment of Student(s)Fit CriterionEnrolment information for student(s) is passed to LearnwiseScenarios/StepsActorSystemMIS operator enters student information (biographical/ qual aim/ unit of delivery)QLS generates UserID and email address. QLS passes student information to LearnwiseLearnwise adds student(s) to its database and student(s) to the appropriate coursesEnrolment ErrorIf an error is made and student is enrolled on a wrong course then the MIS operator changes the qual aim/unit of delivery in QLSQLS passes the new qual aim/unit of delivery information to LearnwiseLearnwise gives student membership of the new course and deletes student from the original wrong course Identify the systems Having developed the use cases it becomes clear which systems need to share data for what purposes. This may have seemed obvious beforehand, but it may become much clearer that other systems are also involved. For instance, there may be authentication or authorisation being carried out via a third system which had not been considered beforehand. Map the data to be transferred Having identified the systems that need to exchange data there is a need to look in detail at exactly what this information is. This needs to be done both to ensure that the elements all map across and the content of those elements can also be mapped across (ie that the systems are using common or at least compatible vocabularies). As an example a table developed by Coleg Menai identifying the fields in the two systems that they wish to exchange date between is shown. This lists all the relevant fields in the two systems, shows how the data relates between the two systems (for instance the way that the address is held differs) and also how the information is transferred between the systems. In this case they have combined all their functions into a single table (hence the first column which shows which of the functions use what data). Table showing the mapping between the Granada Learnwise and QLS systems as developed by Coleg Menai Object-ive1Data into Learnwise from QLS or Access DatabaseField(s) in QLS * denotes other sourceTransfer Route21a,b, cUserIDUserIDA1cEmail AddressUserID@studentmail.menai.ac.uk (this is the students internal email address)A1cSurnameSurnameB1cFamiliar NameFamiliar NameB1cDate of BirthDate of BirthA1cSexSexA4Language Preference1st or 2nd language is Welsh.B5Welsh Assessment (partial or whole)Welsh AssessmentC1cEnrolment / Registration DateQualification Aim Start DateA1cAddress Address 1; Address 2; Address 3; Address 4 Post Code External email Address Home Phone No. Mobile Phone No.B1cPrior LearningEducational establishment last attended with start/leave date Editable by student but not passed back to QLSA1c,dFull Course Name (English)*External DatabaseA1c,dFull Course Name (Welsh)*External DatabaseA1c,dCourse CodeCourse CodeA1c,dSession CodeSession CodeA2Course GradeGradeC2Course OutcomeOutcomeCNotes for table 1 Objectives Courses held within the VLE to be populated with students using MIS records Authentication of learners Validation of learners Passing of biographical and course related data to Learnwise Mapping of course codes to Learnwise courses/topics Student achievements returned from the VLE to the MIS records Information about student status (i.e. active/withdrawn) transferred between MLE components Use biographical information stored by MIS to modify the interface options presented to the learner Transfer information from the VLE to MIS about the use of learning materials and assessments in the medium of Welsh (important for drawing down funding related to Welsh language delivery) Explore issues created through the existence of parallel resources and assessments 2 Transfer route Transfer from QLS to Learnwise (one-way) via the DTC; Transfer from QLS into Learnwise, editable by student/tutor and passed back to QLS via the DTC; Transfer from QLS to Learnwise, editable by tutor and passed back to QLS via the DTC However, this mapping is not sufficient, because, for instance, at Coleg Menai both systems hold the student's status. However they do not use precisely the same vocabularies (and to make matters more problematic the application profile uses a third and smaller vocabulary). This is shown in the table below: QLSLearnwiseEnterprise 1.1ContinuingIn ProgressActiveCompletedCompletedInactiveWithdrawnWithdrawnInactiveTransferredTransferredInactiveSuspended-Inactive-ReferredInactiveTable showing the vocabularies used for student status by QLS and Learnwise and how these map to the IMS Enterprise specification Identify the specification to be used It should now be apparent (if it was not before) which is the most appropriate specification to be used for transferring the data. This is not as straightforward a choice as it might seem, as the specifications cannot be used as is. The specifications have to be fleshed out with vocabularies, and rules that relate to specific circumstances (such as national policies). To do this a variety of application profiles have been developed. These take the base specifications and then provide the additional information that is needed to make them work. As can be seen the projects chose to use a variety of different specifications and applications profiles to implement their interoperability: CollegeSpecificationColeg Llandrillo CymruIMS Enterprise Application Profiles for the English Further Education Sector version 0.9r2Banff and Buchan CollegeIMS Learner Information Profile 1.0FalkirkIMS Enterprise Application Profiles for the English Further Education Sector version 0.9r2MenaiIMS Enterprise 1.1, using the solution developed by Stoke CollegePerth CollegeIMS Enterprise specification 1.01 was proposed, but was not supported by WebCTTable showing specifications used by SWaNI projects for transferring data between their VLE and student record system. Clearly this raises problems for other colleges that wish to make use of the work that has already been done. For instance if a college is using SITS and Learnwise the projects which used these used IMS Enterprise 1.1 and IMS Enterprise 1.01 (Learnwise) and IMS LIP 1.0 and IMS Enterprise with English FE Application Profile version 0.pr2 (SITS). Clearly this is also a problem for the vendors, as they may have to implement multiple versions to handle the different specifications and application profiles in use. Determine a transport mechanism Not only does one have to consider the data and data formats for exchanging data between systems one also has to consider the mechanism by which the data is actually transferred between the systems. There are a wide variety of possibilities here, but following advice from CETIS all the projects attempted to use SOAP. SOAP is a good choice because of its adoption by W3C for web services. However, to work both sides have to implement it, and in no case did both vendors implement SOAP. In some cases an interim method was adopted (http post by Coleg Menai, a specially constructed utility by Coleg Llandrillo Cymru). In some cases the issue was not resolved by the end of the project. In the case of Falkirk, Teknical had implemented SOAP while SITS and Capita had not. It is extremely likely that within a few years SOAP will be the standard method for doing for implementing transport in web services. Implement and test This is as far as the projects got. None of the projects were able to go live during the course of the SWaNI programme, and this is discussed below. Perhaps the most important thing to note here is the importance of proper testing in a test environment before trying anything on the live system. As Coleg Menai wrote in their final report "One major lesson we have learned in this project is that having one VLE server is not enough. We have learnt that although interoperability is described by vendors as out-of-the-box this does not mean its straightforward to implement. In future we plan to always test new interoperability/services before implementing them on the live server." Issues A number of important issues were revealed in these projects, and some of these are discussed here Selecting the specification As shown in the summary table the projects selected a variety of different specifications to implement to achieve interoperability, specifically one college (Banff and Buchan College) used LIP, two used the application profile of the Enterprise Specification developed by the MLE Interoperability Pilots in FE programme and others used different versions of the Enterprise Specification. This creates three problems Vendors have to support more than one version of the system to work with each of the specifications and their application profiles which will add significantly to costs. Most vendors will not support all the application profiles that may be in use which restricts the choice for colleges to compatible systems Unless concerted effort is made to bring the various specifications in line with each other they will tend to drift further apart leading to greater problems in the future. XML Compliance In several of the projects vendors were producing data which was not valid XML, or did not comply to with the application profile that was (supposed) to be being used. It is difficult to find any justification for not producing valid XML as it is a well understood mechanism that has been around for some time and there are plenty of tools for testing and supporting XML. Technically a system should reject any record which does not strictly conform to the XML standard. However, it would appear that the vendors were more interested in finding a solution to their particular problem rather than in developing a generic solution that would apply across the sector. Again, it is likely that this stemmed at least in part from the unfunded nature of the developments that they were expected to undertake. It is tempting to suggest that you get the quality you pay for! There may be some justification for failure to comply with application profiles where this is because of unresolved ambiguities. Indeed, one of the reasons for the programme was to test the specifications specifically for this type of problem. Vocabularies Different systems make use of different controlled vocabularies (lists of terms which have specific meanings to the system). A clear example of this is student status at Coleg Menai where not only did the two systems use different vocabularies, but the application profile that they were using was not in fact capable of supporting either of them (see appendix C for details). Timescales The sector wished to have the information that these projects could supply as quickly as possible, but this meant that the projects were actually unable to deliver results in the time that was made available to them. Several of the projects asked for extensions, but these were not forthcoming which means that the results are incomplete. The programme was extremely ambitious (even over-ambitious) in expecting colleges to achieve fully operational interoperability in such a short time given that the vendor developments were entirely funded by the vendors themselves on a grace and favour basis. The situation was not helped by the slow start to the programme with many of the key decisions not being made until the programme meeting in December - almost half way through the programme's life. It is now clear that when timescales are short it is important to have proper contracts with all parties to the work; otherwise one is left dependent on their good will. It is likely that they will have what for them are more pressing priorities elsewhere, and that without the contractual obligations it is will often not be possible to keep to a tight time schedule. Vendor input Vendors were donating their effort to the programme, which means that other work was always likely to take precedent. This indeed was the case and with the result that the delivery from them was often delayed compressing much of the work into the last few months with not enough time to overcome the inevitable problems. Content Packaging (Sir Gr) SWaNI funded a single project to look at the interoperability of learning content between virtual learning environments and between virtual learning environments and a content repository. The project was primarily concerned with demonstrating the feasibility of moving content in order to be able to share it between a group of colleges in South West Wales. In many ways this was the most successful project in terms of demonstrating interoperability as it demonstrated interoperability between a wide variety of VLEs via a content repository. The five colleges involved in the project use five different VLEs (with one college using two VLEs) and they wanted to be able to share content. They therefore needed a neutral mechanism for sharing content, which they could use to import the learning objects into any of the VLEs and know that the learning objects would still work. Much work has already been done in this area, therefore there was little need to develop the specifications further, so the project set about testing whether interoperability would actually work and what the issues would be around that. Description of project There were five colleges using five different VLEs (including one college which uses two different VLEs). These are: Coleg Sir Gr Virtualcollege Swansea Granada Learnwise version 2.2 Pembroke - FD Learning version 2.2 Neath Port Talbot Teknical version 4 Gorseinon - Digitalbrain version 7.2 and Teknical At the start of the project none of the colleges had a mechanism for sharing the content, and the aim of the project was that colleges could share content in the way shown in the diagram:  Diagram showing the ways in which the colleges wished to be able to share content between their VLEs. Note that they wanted to be able to move content directly between college systems or via a repository. In the end they were not able to demonstrate interoperability between the VLEs except via the repository as shown below:  Diagram showing the way in which colleges were able to share content by the end of the project. Note that except where they used the same VLE they were only able to share content by moving it via the repository. There are several points to note here. Firstly, whilst the aim has been for all the colleges to be able to share material from their VLEs in a standard form by exporting them either to a content repository or directly to another VLE only one of the VLEs (Teknical) was able to export learning objects using IMS. This means that only Neath Port Talbot College and Gorseinon College were able to export material. Even then this was via the content repository, not directly between VLEs (with the exception of Teknical to Teknical at Neath Port Talbot College and Gorseinon College. This was a serious limitation on developing true interoperability and the ability to share learning objects amongst groups of colleges. That they are able to import objects using the IMS is however very positive as it demonstrates the ability to support a generic market in learning objects which can be imported from elsewhere (NLN, publishers, colleges which are able to export their objects etc.). One of the other issues that became apparent during the testing is that different VLE implementers had interpreted the specifications in somewhat different ways which initially led to problems importing the content into the Teknical because of its need for globally unique identifiers (as required by the specification). Seven types of learning object were created for testing Linear Flash Learning Object (XML Driven) PDF Document Static HTML with Multiple Images Multiple Page Learning Object with internal navigation VLE Navigation Learning Object Package using a combination of VLE and learning object navigation Powerpoint Presentation What is interesting is that several of the VLEs (Teknical, Learnwise and DigitalBrain) together with Intrallect (the content repository) would accept the manifests even when they contained errors. FD learning on the other hand is much stricter in checking the XML as it returned errors that it found in the original versions of the manifest. It is perhaps most worrying that Teknical accepts errors as it also exports IMS metadata and manifests. Issues The project raises several issues which need discussing here Ability to export learning objects It was noted earlier that not all of the VLEs allow the exporting of IMS content packages of XML metadata. This has significant implications for the development of learning materials within colleges if they want to be able to share them with others, as they will have to be created in an authoring tool which can create suitable metadata and then imported into the local VLE. Perhaps more important is that when learning objects are amended within the VLE there is no way of sharing the amended objects. This was beyond the scope of this project. Quality of XML There are issues with the quality of the XML that some packages create and in how it is treated by the VLEs. Several of the VLEs imported, without reporting any errors, XML manifests which contained errors or invalid XML. While, from the users point of view, this may be preferable, as it allows one to work with objects which contain small errors, it will, in the long run, lead to problems. If systems are not abiding by the rules then one needs to understand how far from the rules they are going as it means that learning objects which work in one system may not work in another. However, if a user has found a learning object where there are some (minor) XML errors in the manifest then they are still going to want to work with it rather than go back to the author or publisher to get them fixed. Where the objects have been produced by one college for sharing with partners there may be little incentive for the user to correct the XML if the object is working for them. Further, if the problems are because the system that they are using creates invalid XML it is likely that there will be little that they can do to correct the matter anyhow without going back to the vendor. This implies that it is important that colleges ensure that the systems that they acquire (VLEs, content development and packaging tools etc.) produce valid XML against the version of the specifications that they wish to use. It is only through this making sure that the XML that is produced is valid that we will be able to build communities able to share and exchange learning object. Unique Identifiers The other issue that was raised by the projects was that of globally unique identifiers. The specification states: 1.1 Globally unique label for learning object. This element can be transparent to the meta-data creator. It can be created by the meta-data management system. This element corresponds with the Dublin Core element DC.Identifier. You can use your own ID method or the IMS best practice. Teknical is therefore quite right in having insisted that learning objects should each have their own globally unique identifier, however unless there is some agreed mechanism for doing this it will be impossible to ensure that identifiers are indeed globally unique. At the moment there are several competing schemes including Digital Object identifiers (DOI), Handle System, URNs etc. see for instance http://hosted.ukoln.ac.uk/biblink/wp2/links.html for a discussion of many of the options. Version control It had been the intention of the project to make use of the following versions of the IMS metadata and content packaging specifications: IMS metadata 1.2 IMS content packaging 1.1.2 And the test learning objects were created using these versions of the specifications. However it was discovered during the course of the project that whilst Intrallect would import learning objects that conform to these specifications it would only export the following specifications: IMS metadata 1.3 IMS content packaging 1.1.3 Whilst there are advantages in working with the most up to date version of the specification it is also important that there is consistency between the various systems that are in use. If the VLEs are using a particular version of the specification then the repository should be capable of supporting that version of the specification and Intrallect should look to being able to support whichever version of the specifications that VLEs are using. It would be a very valuable service if the Intrallect content repository were capable of exporting to more than one version of the specifications, as one cannot expect all the VLEs to update to particular versions of IMS specifications at the same time. This would then allow VLEs to share objects at times when they are using different versions of the specifications, and to enable legacy objects to continue to be used when VLEs are updated if the repository can update the XML it is exporting. It should also be noted that there may be intellectual property rights (IPR) issues where the repository is changing the metadata. If the learning object creator wished to retain control of the metadata under their licensing terms then there it may not be permissible to update the metadata. This is an issue which Intrallect needs to address urgently in order to ensure that it complies with the law. Conclusions This was a successful project which demonstrated the ability to exchange learning objects between systems that are able to export the objects, and usefully highlighted three issues: Processing malformed XML - generally the user wishes to be able to use a learning object that meets the educational goals that they are addressing and on the whole they do not care whether the metadata that describes it or the content packaging information is strictly correct so long as they have found the object and the content packaging has the information necessary for what they want to do. Indeed, most teachers would feel very frustrated if the learning object that they had found could not be used because the XML was not well formed. The responsibility for producing well-formed XML that meets the specification clearly falls upon the system that is producing (or exporting) it, and this is an important issue that all content creators need to address if their content is to be usable (or reusable). The need for a common approach to unique identifiers. - As the IMS specification calls for globally unique identifiers there is a need for a common approach to this which goes well beyond what JISC is doing and covers the entire education community, from schools to colleges and universities and commercial suppliers both in the UK and beyond. JISC should therefore work closely with other bodies nationally (including the DfES, NLN and the office of the e-envoy) and internationally on resolving this issue. The need for version control - We have seen that Intrallect will import an older version of the specifications than it is capable of exporting. This can have serious implications for users as they may be using VLEs that have not (yet) implemented the latest versions of the specifications. There is therefore a need for content management systems to be able to import and export different versions of the specifications so that they can receive content from a variety of sources (including legacy objects) and export them for use in the widest variety of VLEs possible. Personal development record / plan There was a single project in the area of personal development plans (PDP) and personal development records (PDR). This is both the most complex and the least well developed of the areas that were investigated under the SWaNI programme. Integration of learning environments and student record systems has been taking place for several years and the use of learning objects now has a long history. The project concentrated on demonstrating the viability of using the IMS specifications for the purpose of handling PDPs and PDRs and had neither the time nor the resources to go on to a full blown trial of the system let alone live usage of the system. Thus, although the project did not achieve fully automated interoperability between systems it has moved the area forward considerably, and it will be important to carry this work forward given the growing importance of PDPs and PDRs. Description of Project The project looked at the use of the IMS Specifications for transferring PDP and PDR records between their VLE and student record system and in order to determine what was needed to achieve the interoperability it considered a wide variety of functions (use cases), and it is worth briefly summarising these here. Transfer of an entire PDR from one system to another. This would occur when a user wishes to transfer their record from Learning Industries' PDR system to Learndirect's organiser system or vice versa. Transfer of learning activity data (LAD) from one system to another, typically as a result of a student completing a course and transferring to another institution. They looked at this being automatically processed and at a manual process to transfer the records from one system to another. This would be used once a student completed a piece of learning within the Teknical VLE to transfer the record to either Learning Industries' PDR system to Learndirect's organiser system. Importing competency frameworks published by an accrediting body into either system. It had originally been intended to use the IMS Competency Definition Specification to convey the Goal data stored within the Learning Industries Limited's PDR, however early in the project it was decided to only use the IMS Learning Information Package Specification (LIP) as this was deemed to be sufficient, although the LIP in its current form was, as will be shown, found inadequate and the Centre for Recording Achievement is proposing some extensions to the LIP. The initial mapping of the of the data that they wished to move between the systems made it clear that there were substantial parts of that data which were not covered by the LIP specification. This included information that is used in the review phase of personal development planning. Related to this was the point that the data that the two systems hold is not the same, as their purpose and functionality is somewhat different. This is potentially a very serious problem as it may mean that one system is unable to supply all the data that the other system needs. It is worth looking at this point in some detail. Learndirect's Lifelong Log has a detailed personal development planning process which allows for free-format data input at each stage. This contrasts with Learning Industries Limited's PDR which utilises a simplified PDP process but requests specific data at each stage. Note that the whole emphasis of the systems is different, with Learndirect focusing on the PDP and Learning Industries focusing on the PDR with a less complex PDP process. While it may be possible to address the problem in this case, it does raise the question of the degree to which interoperability can be achieved between the various PDP and PDR systems that are being used and developed. The field is still relatively immature, which means that there is likely to be considerable divergence in the scope and functionality of the systems and thus the data that they hold and the way in which they hold it. It is likely that a solution can be developed in any particular case, which may include determining exactly how the data is mapped in a particular instance, and also the way in which the systems are used to record information to achieve compatibility. This is unlikely to lead to general interoperability, as it would have to involve pair-wise agreement and policies on how the systems would be used. This led to the project being restricted to the sharing of PDR data, and excluded achievements from that, so that it covers identification, goals and activities. Even this caused problems and the Centre for Recording Achievement has recommended the extension of LIP to include a element which can be used transferring data relating to reflective thinking. However it is likely that systems will make use of this in different ways and achieving interoperability is clearly some way off. What the project has ended up with is a specific LIP application profile that meets their needs, and which Learning Industries has implemented in their current version of the systems. However, neither Learndirect nor Teknical have been in a position to export the relevant data and all the testing has been done with manually created data. Having achieved this mapping, the project went on to manually create some records by encoding data in XML by hand, in order to test whether the data could be imported by the systems. Issues Asymmetric data While applications which are fundamentally the same may have differing data requirements, often reflecting their different history, the situation becomes much more complex when the functionality varies between systems. In this case there can be significant differences between what data is held and how it is used. This became apparent early in the life of this project when it was realised that Learning Industries has a simpler PDP process than Learndirect with Learning Industries having greater focus on the PDR. This was identified as a result of mapping the data between the two systems. It becomes obvious that not all the fields that are used in one system are used in the other. For instance Learning Industries holds the following information which is not used in Learndirect's system Current professional position Name of institution/affiliation Month in which the CPD year starts (when required to undertake so many CPD days/year) Minimum number of CPD days required per year Number of CPD days claimed for the activity Applications of what was learned Impact on career opportunities (if any) Unique ID of the goal Unique ID of the goals parent goal Title of the goal Date the goal started Date the goal was achieved Progress status of goal development While the issue of asymmetric data was highlighted by this project, it is an issue that may be important in other areas too, if systems are working with significantly different models of the data. Where data is being exchanged between systems there is no problem so long as both systems hold the same information. However, it is often the case that one of the systems holds data that is not held in the other system. If data is being moved from the system that has more data to the one that uses less then there is still no problem. The problem occurs when it is necessary to move data from the system that does not hold the data to the one that does. Whether it is a problem then depends on how important the data is to the receiving system. If it is optional data then it may not be a problem, or a slight inconvenience. However, if the data is important or mandatory then it may be impossible to move the data one way. In reality it will often be the case that both systems hold data that is not used by the other as they may be trying to do slightly different things. In this case interoperability may not be possible without modifications to the systems so that they collect and export the relevant information. Not implemented by all parties This was an extremely ambitious project given the timescales and level of funding involved, so it is not surprising that full interoperability was not achievable. While the project has been able to demonstrate the potential for transferring PDP records from one package to another automatically using IMS LIP they have not been able to actually demonstrate this transfer because not all the vendors had implemented the necessary functionality. Thus, learning Industries Ltd have created a demonstration system that is capable of importing IMS LIP data that conforms to the Ystrad Mynarch Application Profile and of exporting data as well. Teknical and Learndirect have been unable to implement the functionality in the time available. This is perhaps unsurprising as PDP is not the core of their systems and may not be their highest priority. Discussion on the status of MLEs and IMS It is clear from these projects that some advances have been made in the area of interoperability for the building of MLEs, but that considerably more work is needed. Before drawing looking at the conclusions that relate to particular pieces of work it is worth making some general remarks on the state of interoperability and MLEs as demonstrated across the whole programme. The idea of MLEs and of interoperability standards on which they are predicated have been heavily sold to the education sector in the UK, perhaps especially within further education, primarily as a result of the work that JISC has done, and it is going through the a typical pattern for a new technology as demonstrated in the "Hype Cycle" developed by Gartner  This shows that new technologies go through 5 stages which Gartner describes as follows: Technology/Business Trigger: A breakthrough, invention, discovery, public demonstration, product launch or other event generates significant press and industry interest. Peak of Inflated Expectations: During this phase of over enthusiasm and unrealistic projections, a flurry of well-publicised activity by technology leaders results in some successes, but more failures, as the technology is pushed to its limits. The enterprises that make money during this phase are generally conference organizers, magazine publishers and consultants. Trough of Disillusionment: Because the technology does not live up to its inflated expectations, it rapidly becomes unfashionable, and the press abandons the topic or touts its failure to meet expectations. Slope of Enlightenment: Focused experimentation and solid hard work by an increasingly diverse range of organizations lead to a true understanding of the technologys applicability, risks and benefits. Commercial off-the-shelf methodologies and tools become available to ease the development process and application integration. Plateau of Productivity: The real-world benefits of the technology are demonstrated and accepted. Tools and methodologies are increasingly stable as they enter their second and third generations. The final height of the plateau varies according to whether the technology is broadly applicable or benefits only niche markets. Learning technology interoperability standards first started being talked about in about 1996, and IMS was founded in 1997 with much more limited aims than it now has. Shortly after this the concept of MLEs was developed and the functionality that IMS addressed was expanded. Until 1999 few people had heard of Learning technology interoperability standards (LT IS), though there were several groups working on them including Ariadne in Europe, IMS and IEEE primarily in the US. From around 2000 there was a lot of talk of both LTIS and the MLEs which they enable but there was little to show for it. It was a classic case of the potential being discussed ahead of the ability of the technology to deliver anything useful. With a technology as inherently complex as MLEs there was never going to be a quick solution, but hopes were exceptionally high because what was being offered meets a real business need of getting the diverse systems that colleges and universities deploy to communicate with each other. Once the discussion moved beyond the experts there was a clear hope that the technology would be the "magic bullet" that enabled the systems to interoperate cheaply and easily thus allowing the rapid deployment of MLEs. It is now the early stages of actually trying to deliver these systems and discovering all the problems that will have to be resolved to make MLEs work. This means that disillusionment is now becoming apparent as the difficulties of implementation become apparent. It is now clear to all (and has always been known by the experts) that while LTIS will reduce the problem they do not eliminate the difficulties of getting systems to interoperate. However what will emerge at the end of this is some working systems and an understanding of the real contribution that LTIS can make in the development of workable MLEs. The evaluation of the SWaNI projects has to be done with this framework in mind if we are to understand the contribution that they have made to the development of MLEs. Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions The projects have each shown some progress, but none has been completely technically successful, with all the projects indicating that further work is needed before they can deliver a robust solution to the colleges' needs. Correct to use XML It is clear that industry as a whole is moving towards XML, and the education community is no different in that respect. It was therefore wholly appropriate to recommend XML based methods for achieving interoperability. Correct to use IMS Despite the problems that are clear from the projects the use of IMS does provide a sound base for interoperability. This becomes more obvious if one asks what the alternatives are. IMS is an attempt to move away from ad hoc piecemeal solutions to something that is scalable and meets the needs of all colleges at an affordable price. While it clear that IMS is not delivering everything that we might want, these projects have helped to improve the understanding of the problems. This will help with the revision of IMS so that it better meets colleges' needs and so that vendors are in a better position to correctly implement it in a generic way over the next few years. However, while it was correct to use IMS, more advice and guidance is needed on the most appropriate ways to use it. In particular there is a need for JISC, working with other bodies in the sector and with vendors, to pick some application profiles which can be recommended across the sector. Colleges which then find that this does not meet their needs will at least know that they are likely to have pay for the additional development work needed to achieve the functionality that they want. Correct to investigate SOAP The recommendation to use SOAP was intelligent and brave and if the projects had been given a little more time would almost certainly have borne fruit with at least some of them being able to demonstrate SOAP in action. There are clear arguments for moving towards a web services model and the use of SOAP is one step on that route. It is likely that the SWaNI programme has speeded up the implementation of SOAP amongst UK vendors even though few were able to deliver anything before the end or the programme. Programme too short The greatest problem that projects faced was that there was simply not enough time to complete the work that was hoped for. This was exacerbated by two things: The relatively late inputs into the project on the development of use cases and the use of SOAP as the transport mechanism. Given the very short duration of the projects this should have been available earlier, or if that was not possible serious consideration should have been given to extending the duration of the project. Relying on the good will of the vendors for implementation, when it may not have been their highest priority. Several of the projects asked for, but were denied, extensions to their project in order to be able take delivery from the vendors, test and implement their systems. This has had a considerable adverse affect on the usefulness of the projects to the community. While it is likely that most of them will have delivered functional interoperability (indeed may have by now) there is a danger that the community as a whole will only see the point which was reached by the end of the programme, and therefore believe that the open standards approach to interoperability does not work. It would be worthwhile for JISC to provide a small amount of funding to each of the colleges to write up their status now, and perhaps again in a further six months. It is likely that the sector would learn a great deal more of benefit for little additional cost. Recommendations JISC should fund the colleges that made up this programme to write up their progress since the end of the project, with a particular emphasis on the problems that they faced and how they overcame them and how much effort this took so that all colleges can benefit from the lessons learnt. Interoperability projects should be based on systems rather than colleges. Where the projects are college based there is little need for the vendors to provide general solutions, as far as they are concerned a quick fix is all that is needed to demonstrate the interoperability. This is clearly evidenced by the failure of projects to produce valid XML, let alone XML which conforms to the application profiles. This is especially true where the vendors' development work is unfunded. Following from this any projects should test interoperability of each system with multiple other systems. Where a project is only between two systems there is little incentive for the developers to do more than ensure that the data is correctly exchanged. This however does not scale, so that if they need to exchange data between multiple systems then there is a strong incentive to make use of a standards based approach. This is most clearly demonstrated by the project led by Coleg Sir Gr which involved 5 VLEs. More advice should be provided to colleges and vendors on which specifications, and which application profiles to use. As we saw the five projects looking at interoperability between VLEs and student record systems or MIS chose to use four different versions of two different specifications. This is not sustainable for the sector, and can only be overcome by a strong lead from JISC / CETIS on which application profiles of which specifications to use in what circumstances. There will, of course, need to be some flexibility to meet individual college needs, but this needs to be built on top of a firmer base. JISC should consider calling a conference of interested parties including other sector bodies (such as Becta and LT Scotland), funding councils, colleges and their representative bodies (such as AoC and NILTA) and vendors to agree on a set of application profiles which will form the basis of interoperability for the sector. Initially this should focus on learning objects - probably using UK LOM Core as the application profile, and the exchange of data between student record systems / MIS and VLEs building on the application profiles already developed (IMS Enterprise Application Profiles for the English Further Education Sector). In future greater consideration should be given to the length of projects so that it is possible for them to deliver in the time available. Greater flexibility should also be available to extend the period of projects when external factors cause delays. JISC should continue to support educational technology interoperability standards, and in particular IMS. While it is clear that, at the moment, we are seeing many problems with them, this is because people are now using them in real applications and thus discovering the problems. It is only through working through these that we will be able to come up with productive systems. Over the next two or three years many people are likely to loose faith with IMS as it will not be seen to be delivering, however at the end of that period IMS will form a sound base for interoperability, so long as JISC continues to support it now. Since the vendors were not being paid and had no contractual obligation to the JISC, or the project, there was no incentive for them to provide resources other than the possibility of a marketable product at the end. The absence of a contractual relationship brought considerable tension at different times and required significant diversion of effort to resolve. In the event the project delivered substantially on its objectives and this is in no small measure a tribute to the professionalism and commitment of the parties involved. However, JISC should consider establishing some form of contractual relationship with the vendors to ensure that results are delivered during the life of the project. Appendices Appendix A: LIP mappings for PDP/PDR The numbers in [ ] after each element refer to the appropriate section of LIP and state whether the element is optional (O) or mandatory (M). Identification LIP Mapping [2.2, O] [13.3.1, M] [, M] Name of the Originating System [, M] [1.01] user_id / person.person_id [, M] [2.4, O] [2.4.1, O] [13.4.1, O] Full [i] [13.4.2, M] [, O] [13.4.1, O] Prefix [ii] [13.4.2, M] [1.02] user_title / person.title [, M] [, O] [13.4.1, O] First [13.4.2, M] [1.03] user_firstname / person.forename [, M] [, O] [13.4.1, O] Initials [13.4.2, M] [1.03] user_initial / person.initials [, M] [, O] [13.4.1, O] Last [13.4.2, M] [1.04] user_lastname / person.surname [, M]
[2.5, O] [, O] [13.4.1, O] Private [iii] [13.4.2, M] [2.5.5, O] [1.11] user_address1 / address.addressline[1-4] [, O] [1.12] user_address2 / address.city [2.5.7, O] [1.13] user_address3 / address.county [2.5.10, O] [1.14] user_postcode / address.postcode [2.5.11, O]
[2.6, O] [2.6. 1, O] [13.4.1, O] Private [iv] [13.4.2, M] [2.6.4, O] [1.15] user_phone / phone.phoneno [, O] [1.15] user_phone / phone.phoneno [, M] [1.15] user_phone / phone.phoneno [, M] [1.15] user_phone / phone.phoneno [, O] [2.6, O] [2.6. 1, O] [13.4.1, O] Private [13.4.2, M] [2.6, O] [2.6. 1, O] [13.4.1, O] Private [13.4.2, M] [2.6.4, O] [1.16] user_fax / phone.faxno [, O] [1.16] user_ fax / phone.faxno [, M] [1.16] user_ fax / phone.faxno [, M] [1.16] user_ fax / phone.faxno [, O] [2.6, O] [2.6. 1, O] [13.4.1, O] Private [13.4.2, M] [1.17] user_email / address.address [2.6.8, O]
[9.1, O] [13.4.1, O] Professional [v] [13.4.2, M] [9.1, O] [13.4.1, O] Professional [vi] [13.4.2, M] [13.14.2, O] [1.08] user_institution / Not Held [13.5.2, M] [6.1, O] [13.4.1, O] Training [13.4.2, M] [6.4, O] [13.6.1, O] [13.4.1, O] Start [13.4.2, M] [1.09] user_cpdstartdate / Not Held [13.6.2, M] [6.6, O] [6.61, M] [, M] [13.10.1, O] CPD Days [13.4.2, O] [1.10] user_cpddays / Not Held [, M] [6.1, O] [13.4.1, O] Work [13.4.2, M] [6.8, O] [6.8.5, O] [1.06] user_company / company.name [13.5.1, M] [1.07] user_position / Not Held [13.5.2, O]
Learner Activity Data LIP Mapping [2.2, O] [13.3.1, M] [, M] Name of the Originating System [, M] [1.01] user_id / person.person_id [, M] [6.1, O] [13.4.1, O] Education [13.4.2, M] Any comments to be included [6.2, O] [6.3, O] [13.3.1, M] [, M] [2.06] lad_provider / org.fullname [, M] [2.01] lad_id / su.id [, M] [6.4, O] [13.6.1, O] [13.4.1, O] Finish [13.4.2, M] [2.02] lad_date / su.pgcompletedate [vii] [13.6.2, M] [6.5, O] [13.8.1, O] [13.4.1, O] Completed [13.4.2, M] [13.8.2, O] [13.6.1, O] [13.4.1, O] Update [13.4.2, M] [2.02] lad_date / su.pgcompletedate YYYY:MM:DD [13.6.2, M] [6.6, O] [6.61, M] [, M] [13.10.1, O] CPD Days [13.4.2, O] [2.03] lad_days / Not Held [, M] [6.8 O] [6.8.1, O] [13.4.1, O] [2.05] lad_type / unit.studymethod [viii] [13.4.2, M] [6.8.5, O] [2.04] lad_title / unit.shortname [ix] [13.5.1, M] [2.07] lad_summary / learningoutcome.shortname [13.5.2, O] [6.8 O] [6.8.7, O] [6.8.5, O] Applications [13.5.1, M] [2.08] lad_applications / Not Held [13.5.2, O] [6.8 O] [6.8.7, O] [6.8.5, O] Applications [13.5.1, M] [2.09] lad_impact / Not Held [13.5.2, O] Goal LIP Mapping [4.1, O] [13.4.1, O] Work [x] [13.4.2, M] Any comments to be included [4.2, O] [4.3, O] [13.3.1, M] [, M] Name of the system creating the information [, M] [3.01] goal_id / Not Held [, M] [4.4, O] [13.6.1, O] [13.4.1, O] Start [xi] [13.4.2, M] [3.04] goal_startdate / Not Held [xii] [13.6.2, M] [4.4, O] [13.6.1, O] [13.4.1, O] Finish [13.4.2, M] [3.05] goal_enddate / Not Held [13.6.2, M] [4.4, O] [13.6.1, O] [13.4.1, O] Update/tyvalue> [13.4.2, M] Updated Date [13.6.2, M] [4.6, O] [13.8.1, O] [13.4.1, O] [3.06] goal_status / Not Held [xiii] [13.4.2, M] [4.7, O] [3.03] goal_title / Not Held [13.5.1, M] [12.1, O] [13.4.1, O] goal / N/A [xiv] [13.4.2, M] [12.4, O] [12.4.1, M] [3.01] goal_id / Not Held [, M] [12.4.2, M] [, O] IsChildOf [13.4.2, M] [12.4.3, M] [3.02] parent_goal_id / Not Held [, M] Notes [i] IMS default vocabulary - Contact, Full, Alias, Maiden, Preferred, Former [ii] IMS default vocabulary - Particle, Prefix, Suffix, Given, Middle, Surname, Nickname, Last, First, Family, Maternal, Paternal, Initials [iii] IMS default vocabulary - Work, Permanent, Private, Temporary, Mailing, Campus, Billing [iv] IMS default vocabulary - Private, Work, Campus [v] IMS default vocabulary - Professional, Personal, Military, Civic [vi] IMS default vocabulary - Professional, Employer, Government, Recreational, Educational, Training, Military [vii] YYYY-MM-DD as defined by ISO8601 [viii] IMS default vocabulary - Class, Course, Curriculum, Module, Topic, Unit [ix] 1-128 Characters [x] IMS Default Vocabulary - Work, Education, Personal [xi] IMS Default Vocabulary - Effective, Birth, Start, Finish, Expiry, Death, Update, Create, Renewal, Delete, Publish, Award, Enrol, Join [xii] YYYY-MM-DD as defined by ISO8601 [xiii] IMS Default Vocabulary - Active, Inactive, Retired, Completed, InProgress, Pending, Expired [xiv] IMS Default Vocabulary - Activity, Accessibility, Affiliation, Competency, Goal, Identification, Interest, QCL, Securitykey, Transcript Appendix B: Distinction Systems XML Sample XML Sample of the XML used for automatic subscription of students to Learnwise ABC College QLS ABC College VLE QLS Export Enrolments 2003-07-03 ABC College QLS ABB98000576 Craig Abbot Abbot Craig MR 2 1960-04-21 ABC College QLS 98/99|CF101|1 ABC College QLS 98/99|CF101|1 ABC College QLS ABB98000576 1 1 1 Errors Data ObjectContainerElementErrorpropertiestypeShould contain string uod-enrolpropertiesdatetimeShould be yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm+tzdpersonfnShould be prefix given familypersonphotoextrefShould be no value attribute just a URLgroupgrouptypeThis element is missing but is mandatorygroupgrouptypeschemeThis element is missing but is mandatorygroupgrouptypetypevalueThis element is missing but is mandatory and should have a level attributemembershipmemberidtypeThis should not have an idtype attributemembershipmemberroletypeThis should be a string e.g. learnermembershiproleextensionThis element is missing. The element should be within the containerTable showing errors returned when the above XML is validated against the CETIS application profile (url) Appendix C: Learner status in IMS Specification, QLS and Learnwise IMS Enterprise 1.1 only allows two values for learner status active and inactive whereas both Learnwise and QLS have five values (see table below). QLSLearnwiseEnterprise 1.1ContinuingIn ProgressActiveCompletedCompletedInactiveWithdrawnWithdrawnInactiveTransferredTransferredInactiveSuspended-Inactive-ReferredInactive This is an example of what is likely to be a common problem where the vocabularies in the different systems do not easily map to each other. In this instance it is made worse by the profile that is being used supporting a vocabulary that is different from and smaller than the vocabularies used by either system. This richer vocabulary for learner status within MIS and VLE systems is a common occurrence in the UK FE sector but the application profiles developed as a result of the English interoperability pilots do not seem to accommodate this. Appendix D: Coleg Menai Use Cases Name of initiating User / ActorMIS Operator1DescriptionEnrolment of Student(s)Fit CriterionEnrolment information for student(s) is passed to LearnwiseScenarios/StepsActorSystemMIS operator enters student information (biographical/ qual aim/ unit of delivery)QLS generates UserID and email address. QLS passes student information to LearnwiseLearnwise adds student(s) to its database and student(s) to the appropriate coursesEnrolment ErrorIf an error is made and student is enrolled on a wrong course then the MIS operator changes the qual aim/unit of delivery in QLSQLS passes the new qual aim/unit of delivery information to LearnwiseLearnwise gives student membership of the new course and deletes student from the original wrong course Name of initiating User / ActorMIS Operator2DescriptionDeletion of Student(s)Fit CriterionStudent is deleted from Learnwise and QLSScenarios/StepsActorSystemMIS operator deletes student record in QLSQLS deletes UserID and email address.QLS instructs Learnwise to delete studentLearnwise deletes student from its database Name of initiating User / ActorTutor3DescriptionWithdrawal of StudentFit CriterionWhen a student is withdrawn in Learnwise this information (date & Reason) is passed to QLSScenarios/StepsActorSystemTutor changes status of student in Learnwise to WithdrawnLearnwise passes the information (status, date, reason, tutor ID) of change in status to the holding bayMIS operator confirms that student has been withdrawn; i.e. withdraw is validStudent status in QLS is changed to Withdrawn. Name of initiating User / ActorMIS Operator4DescriptionWithdrawal of StudentFit CriterionWhen a student is withdrawn in QLS this information is passed to LearnwiseScenarios/StepsActorSystemMIS Operator changes status of student in QLS to WithdrawnQLS passes the information of change in status to Learnwise. Student status in Learnwise is changed to Withdrawn Name of initiating User / ActorTutor5DescriptionTransfer of StudentFit CriterionWhen a student is transferred in Learnwise this information (date, Reason, Course transferred to, Tutor ID) is passed to QLSScenarios/StepsActorSystemTutor changes status of student in Learnwise to TransferredLearnwise passes the information (status, date, reason, Tutor ID, Course Transferred to) of change in status to the holding bayMIS operator confirms that student has been transferred; i.e. transfer is validStudent status in QLS is changed to Transferred. If the course the student has transferred to is known, the Qual Aim/Unit of delivery is amended.QLS passes new Qual Aim/Unit of delivery information to Learnwise. Learnwise gives student access to their new course. Previous course information is stored but student cannot access original course. Name of initiating User / ActorMIS Operator6DescriptionTransfer of StudentFit CriterionWhen a student is transferred in QLS this information is passed to LearnwiseScenarios/StepsActorSystemMIS Operator changes status of student in QLS to Transferred and indicates the students new qual aim/unit of deliveryQLS passes the information (status, Course Transferred to) of change in status to Learnwise For original course Learnwise changes status of student to transferred; student is now locked out of this course but learning log data is kept. For the new course, the student is made a member of this course in LearnwiseName of initiating User / ActorStudent7DescriptionChange of Student NameFit CriterionWhen a student changes his/her name in Learnwise this information (& date) is passed to QLSScenarios/StepsActorSystemStudent changes name in LearnwiseLearnwise passes the information (new name, date) to the holding bay MIS operator confirms that student name is validIf valid student name in QLS is changed. If not valid, new name is rejected and the student name in Learnwise is restored to the original? Name of initiating User / ActorTutor8DescriptionChange of Student NameFit CriterionWhen a tutor changes a Student name in Learnwise this information (& date, Tutor ID) is passed to QLSScenarios/StepsActorSystemTutor changes Student Name in LearnwiseLearnwise passes the information (new name, date, Tutor ID) to the holding bay MIS operator confirms that student name is validIf valid student name in QLS is changed. If not valid, new name is rejected and the student name in Learnwise is restored to the original? Name of initiating User / ActorMIS Operator9DescriptionChange of Student NameFit CriterionWhen MIS operator changes student name in QLS this information is passed to LearnwiseScenarios/StepsActorSystemMIS operator changes student name in QLSQLS passes the New Name information to Learnwise. Student Name in Learnwise is changed.  Name of initiating User / ActorStudent10DescriptionChange of Student AddressFit CriterionWhen a student changes his/her address in Learnwise this information (& date) is passed to QLSScenarios/StepsActorSystemStudent changes address in LearnwiseLearnwise passes the information (new address, date) to the holding bay MIS operator confirms that student address is validIf valid student address in QLS is changed. If not valid, new address is rejected and the student address in Learnwise is restored to the original from QLS Name of initiating User / ActorTutor11DescriptionChange of Student AddressFit CriterionWhen a Tutor changes a Student address in Learnwise this information (& date & Tutor ID) is passed to QLSScenarios/StepsActorSystemTutor changes Student address in LearnwiseLearnwise passes the information (new address, date, Tutor ID) to the holding bay MIS operator confirms that student address is validIf valid student address in QLS is changed. If not valid, new address is rejected and the student address in Learnwise is restored to the original from QLS Name of initiating User / ActorMIS Operator12DescriptionChange of Student AddressFit CriterionWhen a MIS Operator changes a Student address in QLS this information is passed to LearnwiseScenarios/StepsActorSystemMIS Operator changes Student address in QLSQLS passes the New Address information to Learnwise. Student Address in Learnwise is Changed Name of initiating User / ActorTutor13DescriptionDirect Input Student(s) Achievement in LearnwiseFit CriterionWhen a Student Achievement for a course is entered into Learnwise it is passed on to the Holding Bay for validationScenarios/StepsActorSystemTutor enters student achievement into Learnwise.Learnwise passes Student achievement to Holding BayMIS Operator checks Student achievement is valid.If valid student achievement is passed on to QLS (Exams Module) If not valid student achievement remains in the Holding Bay. Name of initiating User / ActorTutor14DescriptionTransfer of Student(s) Achievement from QLS (Exams Module) or Holding Bay to LearnwiseFit CriterionWhen a Student Achievement for a course is entered into QLS (Exams Module) or the Holding Bay it is passed on to LearnwiseScenarios/StepsActorSystemExams officer enters student achievement into Exams Module/Holding BayStudent Achievement is Passed to Learnwise and displayed in the students learning log Name of initiating User / ActorTutor15DescriptionAssessment Through Medium of WelshFit CriterionInformation (Yes/No) on whether assessment was undertaken through the medium of Welsh is passed back to QLSScenarios/StepsActorSystemTutor uses Learnwise to indicate whether assessment was undertaken in the medium of WelshLearnwise passes Welsh Assessment information to QLS Name of initiating User / ActorLearnwise Administrator16DescriptionAllocation of Student Members to a Correct CourseFit CriterionWhen a new course is created, the correct student members are allocated to itScenarios/StepsActorSystemLearnwise Administrator creates new course in Learnwise and maps it to Qual aim and possibly unit of deliveryQLS passes on student information for the student members of the course to Learnwise Name of initiating User / ActorLearnwise Administrator17DescriptionAllocation of Student Members to a Correct TopicFit CriterionWhen a new topic is created, the correct student members are allocated to itScenarios/StepsActorSystemLearnwise Administrator creates new topic in a Learnwise course. The course has already been mapped to Qual aim/unit of delivery. The tutor selects topic membersQLS passes on student information for the Topic membersNote: A Learnwise Topic may be mapped to more than 1 Qual aim and possibly more than one unit of delivery. Name of initiating User / ActorLearnwise Administrator18DescriptionAllocation of Student Members to a Correct Course: Whole OrganisationFit CriterionWhen a new course is created, the correct student members are allocated to itScenarios/StepsActorSystemLearnwise Administrator creates new course in Learnwise and flags it as open to all Coleg Menai studentsQLS validation grants all Coleg menai members access to the course Name of initiating User / ActorLearnwise Administrator19DescriptionAllocation of Student Members to a Correct Course: Faculty/DepartmentFit CriterionWhen a new course is created, the correct student members are allocated to itScenarios/StepsActorSystemLearnwise Administrator creates new course in Learnwise and flags it as only being available to Students from a particular ProgrammeQLS validation grants all Programme (Department) members access to the course Name of initiating User / ActorLearnwise Administrator20DescriptionAllocation of Student Members to a Programme Specific Organisation Fit CriterionWhen a new Organisation is created, the correct student members are Granted Access to itScenarios/StepsActorSystemLearnwise Administrator creates a new Organisation in Learnwise and flags it as only being available to Students from a particular ProgrammeQLS validation grants all Programme (Department) members access to the Organisation  Widely used by Gartner, see  HYPERLINK "http://www4.gartner.com/pages/story.php.id.8795.s.8.jsp" http://www4.gartner.com/pages/story.php.id.8795.s.8.jsp for an introduction and  HYPERLINK "http://www4.gartner.com/DisplayDocument?id=399363&ref=g_search" http://www4.gartner.com/DisplayDocument?id=399363&ref=g_search for a list of their hype cycles, and  HYPERLINK "http://www4.gartner.com/DisplayDocument?doc_cd=114960" http://www4.gartner.com/DisplayDocument?doc_cd=114960 for their XML hype cycle. 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